Douglas C-68

Douglas C-68

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Douglas C-68

The designation Douglas C-68 was given to two DC-3s impressed off the Douglas production line after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Like several similarly acquired aircraft given the designation C-48, the C-68s were powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1830-82 engine, had 21 seats, and only differed in minor details.



The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. on July 22, 1921 in Santa Monica, California, following dissolution of the Davis-Douglas Company. [1] An early claim to fame was the first circumnavigation of the world by air in Douglas airplanes in 1924. In 1923, the U.S. Army Air Service was interested in carrying out a mission to circumnavigate the Earth for the first time by aircraft, a program called "World Flight". [2] Donald Douglas proposed a modified Douglas DT to meet the Army's needs. [3] The two-place, open cockpit DT biplane torpedo bomber had previously been produced for the U.S. Navy. [4] The DTs were taken from the assembly lines at the company's manufacturing plants in Rock Island, Illinois and Dayton, Ohio to be modified. [5]

The modified aircraft known as the Douglas World Cruiser (DWC), also was the first major project for Jack Northrop who designed the fuel system for the series. [6] After the prototype was delivered in November 1923, upon the successful completion of tests on 19 November, the Army commissioned Douglas to build four production series aircraft. [7] Due to the demanding expedition ahead, spare parts, including 15 extra Liberty L-12 engines, 14 extra sets of pontoons, and enough replacement airframe parts for two more aircraft were chosen. These were sent to airports along the route. The last of these aircraft was delivered to the U.S. Army on 11 March 1924. [4]

After the success of the World Cruiser, the Army Air Service ordered six similar aircraft as observation aircraft. [8] [8] [9] The success of the DWC established the Douglas Aircraft Company among the major aircraft companies of the world and led it to adopt the motto "First Around the World - First the World Around". [10]

Douglas adopted a logo that showed aircraft circling a globe, replacing the original winged heart logo. The logo evolved into an aircraft, a rocket, and a globe. It was later adopted by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and then became the basis of the current logo of the Boeing Company after their 1997 merger. [11]


The company is most famous for the "DC" ("Douglas Commercial") series of commercial aircraft, including what is often regarded as the most significant transport aircraft ever made: the Douglas DC-3, which was also produced as a military transport known as the C-47 Skytrain or "Dakota" in British service. Many Douglas aircraft had long service lives.

Douglas Aircraft designed and built a wide variety of aircraft for the U.S. military, including the Navy, Army Air Forces, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.

The company initially built torpedo bombers for the U.S. Navy, but it developed a number of different versions of these aircraft, including reconnaissance planes and airmail aircraft. Within five years, the company was building about 100 aircraft annually. Among the early employees at Douglas were Ed Heinemann, "Dutch" Kindelberger, and Jack Northrop, who later founded the Northrop Corporation. [12]

The company retained its military market and expanded into amphibian airplanes in the late 1920s, also moving its facilities to Clover Field at Santa Monica, California. The Santa Monica complex was so large, the mail girls used roller skates to deliver the intracompany mail. By the end of World War II, Douglas had facilities at Santa Monica, El Segundo, Long Beach, and Torrance, California, Tulsa and Midwest City, Oklahoma, and Chicago, Illinois. [13]

In 1934, Douglas produced a commercial twin-engined transport plane, the Douglas DC-2, followed by the famous DC-3 in 1936. The wide range of aircraft produced by Douglas included airliners, light and medium bombers, fighter aircraft, transports, reconnaissance aircraft, and experimental aircraft.

World War II

During World War II, Douglas joined the BVD (Boeing-Vega-Douglas) consortium to produce the B-17 Flying Fortress. After the war, Douglas built another Boeing design under license, the B-47 Stratojet turbojet-powered bomber, using a government-owned factory in Marietta, Georgia. [13]

World War II was a major boost for Douglas. Douglas ranked fifth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. [15] The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945, and its workforce swelled to 160,000. The company produced a number of aircraft including the C-47 Skytrain, the DB-7 (known as the A-20, Havoc or Boston), the SBD Dauntless dive bomber, and the A-26 Invader. [16] [17] [18]


Douglas Aircraft suffered cutbacks at the end of the war, with an end to government aircraft orders and a surplus of aircraft. It was necessary to cut heavily into its workforce, letting go nearly 100,000 workers.

The United States Army Air Forces established 'Project RAND' (Research ANd Development) [19] with the objective of looking into long-range planning of future weapons. [20] In March 1946, Douglas Aircraft Company was granted the contract to research on intercontinental warfare. [20] Project RAND later become the RAND Corporation.

Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the successful four-engined Douglas DC-6 (1946) and its last propeller-driven commercial aircraft, the Douglas DC-7 (1953). The company had moved into jet propulsion, producing its first for the U.S. Navy — the straight-winged F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more "jet age" style F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the Douglas DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the new Boeing 707.

Douglas was a pioneer in related fields, such as ejection seats, air-to-air missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and air-to-surface missiles, launch rockets, bombs, and bomb racks.

The company was ready to enter the new missile business during the 1950s. Douglas moved from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike missile program and became the main contractor for the Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile program and the Thor ballistic missile program. Douglas also earned contracts from NASA, notably for designing the S-IVB stage of the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets.


In 1967, the company was struggling to expand production to meet demand for DC-8 and DC-9 airliners and the A-4 Skyhawk military attack aircraft. Quality and cash flow problems and DC-10 development costs, combined with shortages due to the Vietnam War, led Douglas to agree to a merger with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation to form McDonnell Douglas. Douglas Aircraft Company continued as a wholly owned subsidiary of McDonnell Douglas, but its space and missiles division became part of a new subsidiary called McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company.

McDonnell Douglas later merged with its rival Boeing in 1997. [21] Boeing combined the Douglas Aircraft Company with the Boeing Commercial Airplanes division, ending more than 75 years of Douglas Aircraft Company history. The last Long Beach-built commercial aircraft, the Boeing 717 (third generation version of the Douglas DC-9), ceased production in May 2006. By 2011, the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III was the last aircraft being assembled at the Long Beach facility the final C-17 was assembled in late 2015. [22]

Lincoln-Douglas debates

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Lincoln-Douglas debates, series of seven debates between the Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and Republican challenger Abraham Lincoln during the 1858 Illinois senatorial campaign, largely concerning the issue of slavery extension into the territories.

The slavery extension question had seemingly been settled by the Missouri Compromise nearly 40 years earlier. The Mexican War, however, had added new territories, and the issue flared up again in the 1840s. The Compromise of 1850 provided a temporary respite from sectional strife, but the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854—a measure Douglas sponsored—brought the slavery extension issue to the fore once again. Douglas’s bill in effect repealed the Missouri Compromise by lifting the ban against slavery in territories north of the 36°30′ latitude. In place of the ban, Douglas offered popular sovereignty, the doctrine that the actual settlers in the territories and not Congress should decide the fate of slavery in their midst.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act spurred the creation of the Republican Party, formed largely to keep slavery out of the western territories. Both Douglas’s doctrine of popular sovereignty and the Republican stand on free soil were seemingly invalidated by the Dred Scott decision of 1857, in which the Supreme Court said that neither Congress nor the territorial legislature could exclude slavery from a territory.

When Lincoln and Douglas debated the slavery extension issue in 1858, therefore, they were addressing the problem that had divided the nation into two hostile camps and that threatened the continued existence of the Union. Their contest, as a consequence, had repercussions far beyond determining who would win the senatorial seat at stake.

When Lincoln received the Republican nomination to run against Douglas, he said in his acceptance speech that “A house divided against itself cannot stand” and that “this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” Douglas thereupon attacked Lincoln as a radical, threatening the continued stability of the Union. Lincoln then challenged Douglas to a series of debates, and the two eventually agreed to hold joint encounters in seven Illinois congressional districts.

The debates, each three hours long, were convened in Ottawa (August 21), Freeport (August 27), Jonesboro (September 15), Charleston (September 18), Galesburg (October 7), Quincy (October 13), and Alton (October 15). Douglas repeatedly tried to brand Lincoln as a dangerous radical who advocated racial equality and disruption of the Union. Lincoln emphasized the moral iniquity of slavery and attacked popular sovereignty for the bloody results it had produced in Kansas.

At Freeport Lincoln challenged Douglas to reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision. Douglas replied that settlers could circumvent the decision by not establishing the local police regulations—i.e., a slave code—that protected a master’s property. Without such protection, no one would bring slaves into a territory. This became known as the “ Freeport Doctrine.”

Douglas’s position, while acceptable to many Northern Democrats, angered the South and led to the division of the last remaining national political institution, the Democratic Party. Although he retained his seat in the Senate, narrowly defeating Lincoln when the state legislature (which then elected U.S. senators) voted 54 to 46 in his favour, Douglas’s stature as a national leader of the Democratic Party was gravely diminished. Lincoln, on the other hand, lost the election but won acclaim as an eloquent spokesman for the Republican cause.

In 1860 the Lincoln-Douglas debates were printed as a book and used as an important campaign document in the presidential contest that year, which once again pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat Douglas. This time, however, Douglas was running as the candidate of a divided party and finished a distant second in the popular vote to the triumphant Lincoln.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

Relationship between mental disorder and sexual offending

Most sex offenders do not have a major mental illness ( Reference Grubin and Gunn Grubin & Gunn, 1991). However, people with schizophrenia or related psychoses may commit sex offences or show abnormal sexual behaviour this may be related to the psychosis itself, either directly ( Reference Smith and Taylor Smith & Taylor, 1999) or indirectly owing to disinhibition secondary to the psychosis ( Reference Craissati and Hodes Craissati & Hodes, 1992), or it may be related to the presence of deviant sexual fantasies ( Reference Smith Smith, 1999). Affective disorder in itself is not usually associated with serious sexual offending, although patients with hypomania may behave in a sexually disinhibited manner leading to offences ranging from indecent exposure to indecent assault ( Reference Brockman, Bluglass and Rosen Brockman & Bluglass, 1996), and patients with paraphilias not infrequently have a comorbid history of dysthymia or depression ( Reference Kafka and Prentky Kafka & Prentky, 1992).

Sexual offending may also be associated with organic brain damage ( Reference Hucker, Langevin and Dickey Hucker et al, 1988), learning disability ( Reference Walker and McCabe Walker & McCabe, 1973), substance misuse ( Reference Williams, Finkelhor, Marshall, Laws and Barbaree Williams & Finkelhor, 1990) and personality disorder ( Reference Reiss, Grubin and Meux Reiss et al, 1996). Where the offending behaviour is driven by sexually deviant fantasies, a clinical diagnosis of a paraphilia may be made using the ICD–10 classification codes F65.0–65.8 (World Health Organization, 1992) or code 302 in the DSM–IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Sexually deviant fantasies and related deviant behaviour, however, are also common in the non-offending population ( Reference Templeman and Stinnett Templeman & Stinnett, 1991), although only in a proportion of sex offenders are paraphilias found.

Historical Snapshot

The Douglas DC-6 was one of the first airplanes to fly a regularly scheduled around-the-world route. With its higher performance, increased accommodation, greater payload and pressurized cabin, it was a natural evolution of the DC-4.

Although the DC-6 had the same wingspan as the DC-4, its engines helped it fly 90 mph (145 kph) faster than the DC-4, carry 3,000 pounds (1350 kilograms) more payload and fly 850 miles (1368 kilometers) farther. The DC-6 could maintain the cabin pressure of 5,000 feet (1524 kilometers) while flying at 20,000 feet (6096 meters).

American Airlines and United Airlines ordered the commercial DC-6 in 1946, and Pan American Airways used the DC-6 to start tourist-class service across the North Atlantic. The 29th DC-6 was ordered by the U.S. Air Force, adapted as the presidential aircraft and designated the VC-118. It was delivered on July 1, 1947, and named The Independence after President Harry Truman&rsquos hometown, Independence, Mo.

The larger, all-cargo DC-6A first flew Sept. 29, 1949 the larger capacity DC-6B, which could seat up 102 people, first flew Feb. 10, 1951. After the Korean War broke out in 1951, the military ordered DC-6As modified as either C-118A Liftmaster personnel carriers, as the Navy&rsquos R6D transports or as MC-118As for aeromedical evacuation. Between 1947 and 1959, Douglas built a total of 704 DC-6s, 167 of them military versions.

By the end of the twentieth century, DC-6 airplanes were still flying around the world.

Douglas Steel Fabricating Corporation was founded in 1952 by Douglas Reniger and Paul Gillett in an 11,000 square foot plant in Lansing, Michigan. Many of the earliest projects were designed and built by Douglas Steel using revolutionary steel joist designs. We specialized in pedestrian bridges, crane runways and truss framed industrial building.

By 1959 Douglas Steel began expanding with the construction of a new fabrication facility on the west side of Lansing. Within seven years the new plant was nearly doubled in size, creating over 50,000 square feet of fabrication space under roof. The new plant was equipped with the latest machinery for material handling, sawing, shearing, drilling, multiple punching, automated welding, burning, blasting and painting. Douglas Steel quickly developed a reputation as an aggressive and innovative partner in developing solutions to many logistics, scheduling and design problems.

Working hard to satisfy the demands of a growing auto industry, Douglas Steel completed many projects for General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. Through certification with the Michigan Department of Transportation, Douglas Steel became the premier Michigan supplier of steel bridges for the expanding state highway network. Working in all phases of new construction, Douglas Steel has built civic arenas, schools, government buildings, shopping malls, factories, industrial tanks, vessels, conveying equipment, warehouses, hospitals, power houses and airport terminals.

Douglas Steel has earned the reputation of industry leader in the Michigan fabrication and erection industry. Now one of the largest fabricators in the state, we continue to develop our expertise and capabilities in all areas of detailing, fabrication and erection.


* Although numbers of Dakotas in military service have continuously declined since World War II, they still remain in operation in many countries, particularly in Latin America. The Dakota remains in commercial service because it is cheap to buy and operate, and there are ample supplies of parts to keep it in the air. The major problem is that the R-1830 Twin Wasp engines are at the end of their lifetimes. As a result, there is an active trade in re-engining old Dakotas, invariably to turboprop operation.

The earliest turboprop conversion was done by Armstrong Siddeley in 1949 to flight-test Mamba turboprop engines, though the aircraft was eventually refitted with Twin Wasps and sold off. Rolls-Royce similarly refitted a Dakota with Dart turboprops in 1950. These were strictly engine test fits and not intended for production. However, in recent decades several different types of "Turbo Dakotas" have seen operational service.

One of the earlier operational Turbo Dakotas was the US Conroy "Tri Turbo-3", which was fitted with three Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45 turboprops with 876 kW (1,174 SHP) each. Two of the turboprops replaced the radial engines, while the third was fitted in the nose. The Tri Turbo appears to have had mixed success. Although it had an excess of power and good short-field characteristics, the nose engine installation was something of a "kluge", and the flight crews got sick from breathing engine exhaust.

Modern Turbo Dakotas use twin engines, generally some version of the popular PT6A. Basler Corporation of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, has been particularly successful with their "BT-67 Turbo Dakota". Basler buys old Dakotas in good condition for a few hundred thousand dollars "zero-lifes" the airframe by replacing worn components and adding reinforcements replaces the R-1830s with PT6A-67R turboprops driving five-bladed Hartzell propellers and in general modernizes the aircraft.

The modernizations include adding a 1-meter (40-inch) fuselage plug and eliminating the unnecessary radio operator's compartment so that the cargo bulkhead can be moved forward, giving the BT-67 35% more internal volume. The radio operator is no longer required because a BT-67 has up-to-date avionics, as well as new electrical, hydraulic, and fuel systems. The wings are modified to give them improved low-speed capabilities and a "squared-off" appearance.

A BT-67 can carry 1,800 kilograms (4,000 pounds) more cargo than a DC-3, and increases the cruise speed by 72 KPH (45 MPH), while reducing approach speed. A bright shiny "new" BT-67 costs about $4 million USD. The Colombian Air Force, having recognized the limitations of their AC-47 Fantasma gunships, decided to update the concept by bringing them up to BT-67 standards, giving them the designation of "AC-47T". These machines were fitted with a Star SAFIRE forward looking infra-red (FLIR) imaging turret under the nose.

The AC-47Ts proved a big advance over the original Fantasmas -- the turboprop engines made them deadly quiet in night attacks. They originally retained the triple Brownings, but they were replaced by twin GAU-19 / GECAL three-barreled 12.7-millimeter Gatling guns. The cockpits were also refitted with lighting compatible with night-vision goggles (NVG), and flares only visible under NVG were carried as well. The old night-illumination flares were retained, simply because they intimidated insurgents.

There were 8 conversions, two having been lost in accidents. Aircraft in service have been enhanced, improvements including chaff-flare dispensers, a day-night electro-optic / infrared (EO-IR) imaging turret, GPS navigation, satellite communications, and replacement of one of the GECAL Gatling guns with a GIAT M621 20-millimeter cannon, for use against fortified targets.

BT-67s are used all over the world, with the aircraft flown in Thailand to seed clouds and by the US Forest Service in America to drop smoke jumpers. By the way, Basler now owns the Conroy Tri-Turbo and hopes to eventually recondition it as an important landmark in the Dakota's history.

The South African Air Force (SAAF) has performed at least 30 "C-47TP Turbodak" conversions. The SAAF uses their Turbodaks for everything from VIP transport to electronic intelligence and maritime patrol. The C-47TPs used in maritime patrol are fitted with FLIR turrets in the nose.

History of the Shire

The First Peoples of the Douglas region are the Kuku Yalanji whose country extends from the Mowbray River in the South to Cooktown in the North and Palmer River in the West. From the Mowbray River, south to Cairns are the traditional homelands of the Yirrganydji people. The Kuku Yalanji and Yirrganydji are rainforest people whose connection to the region extends back 50,000 years to be among the earliest human occupations in Australia.

European habitation in the Douglas Shire began in the 1870s as George Elphinstone Dalrymple led the first extensive exploration of the region. Dalrymple thought the country “surrounded by a panorama of great beauty … a perfect picture of rich tropical country”.

Within the decade gold miners supplied from Port Douglas, timber cutters logging the much-prized red cedar, and farmers of cattle, vegetables, maize and sugar had all begun to make their mark.

Farming expanded along the coastal belt as extensive areas of lowland rainforest were cleared and settlements were established throughout the area.

Cultural diversity has been integral to the history of the Douglas Shire. According to the 1886 census almost two-thirds of the district’s population was of Chinese heritage.

By the 1890s the Douglas sugar cane industry was dependent for its survival upon Chinese and South Sea Islander (Kanaka) labour. In the 1900s these populations grew and were joined by Hindu, Punjabi and Japanese migrants.

The Shire of Douglas existed as a local government entity from 1880 until 2008 when it was amalgamated with Cairns City to create the Cairns Regional Council.

The merger was not popular with the community and lobbying from a local action group led the Queensland Minister for Local Government to grant residents a poll on 9 March 2013 in which a majority of electors (57.61%) voted in favour of de-amalgamation.

The Douglas Shire Council commenced operation for the second time on 1 January 2014 with a new Mayor and four new non-divisional Councillors.

Douglas Kirkland

My father worked in a small clothing business on Jarvis Street in Fort Erie, Ontario. He made men’s made-to-measure suits. He would bring home Life magazine from his store once a week, on Friday. And that’s where the dreams came from.

Access to inexpensive box cameras allowed more people than ever to depict their own lives and the world around them, often creating priceless memories.

The first picture I took was with a Brownie box camera. I was about seven or eight, and I was allowed to take a photo of my family standing at the front door on a very cold Christmas Day. It was a big deal to take a photo at that time because film wasn’t much available during the Second World War. There were eight exposures on that camera, and I had one opportunity to photograph my family. I pushed this box camera into my stomach to hold it very steady. So I heard that magic click there it was for the first time. That is what has been pushing me ever since. And it’s taken me into worlds that I could never have imagined.

I went to Seneca Vocational High School in Buffalo. There I learned about the New York Institute of Photography by seeing it advertised in magazines. I ended up staying in the YMCA in New York for a couple of months while I went to the New York Institute of Photography. I learned a lot, and it was everything I had seen in the Life magazines. But my parents were worried that I would get drafted in the Korean War if I stayed in the States, so I came back to Fort Erie after school. I ended up getting a job at the Fort Erie Times Review and then eventually the Welland Tribune, which was a daily. I learned how to think editorially. I had to come up with an image that would fill a page and interest people, no matter what. I couldn’t come home saying, “Well, it didn’t work out. The light wasn’t good.” I was expected to get a picture every time I was sent on assignment.

“I just felt my future was in the United States. I wanted to be a photographer like those making pictures for Look magazine and Life magazine.”

At first, I worked at a very small printing studio in Richmond, Virginia. My favorite photographer of the time was a man named Irving Penn, and he worked for Vogue. I wrote him three letters, and the third time, he replied and he said, “We don’t have any openings, but if you want to come here, I will be happy to see you.” As it turns out, one of his guys was going in the Army and was going to be gone for six months, so I got the job as his apprentice and moved to New Jersey.

One day, Penn had gone out of town, and I was left back to clean up the studio. I was very ambitious and wanted to do everything I could to endear myself to Penn. I decided I would brush all of the windows that seemed to have a lot of soot on them. I cleaned them all. Penn came back from the trip, and his mouth dropped open. He was very upset because it turns out he hadn’t closed or cleaned those windows for four years, and they had just the look of the light he liked for his photos. I had lost it for him. I thought I was going to be fired.

I went to Miami with Penn. I made a deal that I would drive and put his equipment in the trunk of my ’55 Ford hardtop convertible, so he wouldn’t have to spend the money to ship it there. I got my first wife, my son Mark, and my mother all in this big car, and I drove us to Florida. We stayed in a motel and I photographed with Penn. I learned so much watching him work on location instead of in a studio. I was a sponge, always learning.

On launching a career at Look magazine, working on movie sets, and meeting the love of his life

I went to Look magazine to inquire, and they pushed me out the door, essentially. They hadn’t hired a photographer in a dozen years, and they were staffed. A few months later, I got a phone call from Arthur Rothstein. He was a giant at the time. He was in charge of all photography at Look and was a famous FSA [Farm Security Administration] photographer. “We haven’t put any new photographers in for 12 years, and now we are going to put in two. One of them we want to be a strong photojournalist, and the other one we want to be able to do color fashion and food and whatever else we need.” And, long story short, he gave me a couple of assignments to do for Look. Eventually, I became Arthur’s guy. He really started promoting me.

I’ve also worked on over 100 movies. As a special photographer in the movies, you’re well paid because your obligations are to capture something different that they will use long into the future. To photograph movies, you have to know the script well, and you have to have the sympathy of the principals, the director, and the camera department, and try not to block any work that they are already doing.

I was working with Audrey Hepburn in Paris, and Françoise was in her last year at the Sorbonne. I asked her to dinner, and that was the start of our relationship. Françoise and I are one, and that’s the truth of the matter. We think the same. It’s a beautiful marriage.

On capturing the spirit of our American icons

I shot photos of Elizabeth Taylor in Las Vegas in 1961, and that gave my career an undeniable kick. Before I took her photos, she had been ill and hadn’t been photographed for a while. She had had a tracheotomy. I was unknown as a photographer, but I walked up to her at the end of Jack Hamilton’s interview and said, “Elizabeth, I’m new with this magazine. Could you imagine what it would mean to me if you’d give me an opportunity to photograph you?” She said, “Okay, come tomorrow night at 8:30.” I had a Hasselblad camera, six by six centimeters, two and a quarter inches square. I did the shoot in a simple way. She was quite a monument and did most of the work. And that was, frankly, the beginning of my career photographing celebrities.

This 1961 portrait of Marilyn Monroe by Douglas Kirkland was printed in 2000 at Nash Editions, a digital atelier created by musician Graham Nash.

I spent a month with Judy Garland toward the end of her career. We went to the opening of Judgment at Nuremberg, and I photographed there quite extensively. I went to Toronto and LA with her family. Judy was fragile but loved the attention. I photographed her with her kids, with her husband. And at the end of our time together, I wanted to get something that was special. I said, “We’ve done a lot of good pictures. I’d like a quieter picture of you, Judy.” And I moved in with my Hasselblad with a 250 [mm] lens, and she looked off to the side and started to cry. She did have a hard life in many ways, and that’s where the tear came from. I just encouraged it she responded, and that’s the picture that I would always like on my wall, if possible.

I only photographed Marilyn [Monroe] on one occasion. We got a studio in Hollywood. She said, “I know what we need. We need Dom Pérignon champagne, a bed, white silk sheets and Frank Sinatra music. And I won’t wear anything.” Then she insisted, “The sheets must be silk.” Wow. Can you imagine a boy from Fort Erie, Ontario, hearing those words?


Mellon Fellowship, The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey (IAS), School of Historical Studies, 2021-2022

Faculty Fellowship, Center for the Study of Race, Ethnicity & Equity (CRE2) Washington University in Saint Louis, Spring 2022

Divided Cities Course Design Grant, 2020
Center for the Humanities, Washington University in St. Louis

Excellence in Teaching Award, 2018
Council of Arts & Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis

Trailblazer Faculty Award, 2018
Center for Diversity & Inclusion, Washington University in St. Louis

Center for the Humanities Faculty Fellowship, Fall 2018
Washington University in St. Louis

Louis D. Rubin, Jr. Article Prize (for best article on Southern Literature), 2017
Society for the Study of Southern Literature

Postdoctoral Fellowship in Inequality and Identity, 2014
Washington University in St. Louis

Frederick Douglass Institute Research Award, 2012
Frederick Douglass Institute for African and African American Studies

Donald Marks "Dexter Perkins Prize" in History, 2012
University of Rochester - History Department

Provost’s Fellowship, 2007
University of Rochester


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