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AHE in Ireland, January 2015

AHE in Ireland, January 2015



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Chronological Age Calculator

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Ice Age

An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures and recurring glacial expansion capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years. Thanks to the efforts of geologist Louis Agassiz and mathematician Milutin Milankovitch, scientists have determined that variations in the Earth’s orbit and shifting plate tectonics spur the waxing and waning of these periods. There have been at least five significant ice ages in Earth’s history, with approximately a dozen epochs of glacial expansion occurring in the past 1 million years. Humans developed significantly during the most recent glaciation period, emerging as the dominant land animal afterward as megafauna such as the wooly mammoth went extinct.

An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures that features recurring glacial expansion across the Earth’s surface. Capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years, these periods are interspersed with regular warmer interglacial intervals in which at least one major ice sheet is present. Earth is currently in the midst of an ice age, as the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets remain intact despite moderate temperatures.

These global cooling periods begin when a drop in temperature prevents snow from fully melting in some areas. The bottom layer turns to ice, which becomes a glacier as the weight of accumulated snow causes it to slowly move forward. A cyclical pattern emerges in which the snow and ice traps the Earth’s moisture, fueling the growth of these ice sheets as the sea levels simultaneously drop.

An ice age causes enormous changes to the Earth’s surface. Glaciers reshape the landscape by picking up rocks and soil and eroding hills during their unstoppable push, their sheer weight depressing the Earth’s crust. As temperatures drop in areas adjacent to these ice cliffs, cold-weather plant life is driven to southern latitudes. Meanwhile, the dramatic drop in sea levels enables rivers to carve out deeper valleys and produce enormous inland lakes, with previously submerged land bridges appearing between continents. Upon retreating during warmer periods, the glaciers leave behind scattered ridges of sediment and fill basins with melted water to create new lakes.

Scientists have recorded five significant ice ages throughout the Earth’s history: the Huronian (2.4-2.1 billion years ago), Cryogenian (850-635 million years ago), Andean-Saharan (460-430 mya), Karoo (360-260 mya) and Quaternary (2.6 mya-present). Approximately a dozen major glaciations have occurred over the past 1 million years, the largest of which peaked 650,000 years ago and lasted for 50,000 years. The most recent glaciation period, often known simply as the “Ice Age,” reached peak conditions some 18,000 years ago before giving way to the interglacial Holocene epoch 11,700 years ago.

At the height of the recent glaciation, the ice grew to more than 12,000 feet thick as sheets spread across Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and South America. Corresponding sea levels plunged more than 400 feet, while global temperatures dipped around 10 degrees Fahrenheit on average and up to 40 degrees in some areas. In North America, the region of the Gulf Coast states was dotted with the pine forests and prairie grasses that are today associated with the northern states and Canada.

The origins of ice age theory began hundreds of years ago, when Europeans noted that glaciers in the Alps had shrunk, but its popularization is credited to 19th century Swiss geologist Louis Agassiz. Contradicting the belief that a wide-ranging flood killed off such megafauna as the wooly mammoth, Agassiz pointed to rock striations and sediment piles as evidence of glacier activity from a destructive global winter. Geologists soon found evidence of plant life between glacial sediment, and by the close of the century the theory of multiple global winters had been established.

A second important figure in the development of these studies was Serbian mathematician Milutin Milankovitch. Seeking to chart the Earth’s temperature from the past 600,000 years, Milankovitch carefully calculated how orbital variations such as eccentricity, precession and axial tilt affected solar radiation levels, publishing his work in the 1941 book Canon of Insolation and the Ice Age Problem. Milankovitch’s findings were corroborated when technological improvements in the 1960s allowed for the analyzation of deep sea ice cores and plankton shells, which helped pinpoint periods of glaciation.

Along with solar radiation levels, it is believed that global warming and cooling is connected to plate tectonic activity. The shifting of the Earth’s plates creates large-scale changes to continental masses, which impacts ocean and atmospheric currents, and triggers volcanic activity that releases carbon dioxide into the air.

One significant outcome of the recent ice age was the development of Homo sapiens. Humans adapted to the harsh climate by developing such tools as the bone needle to sew warm clothing, and used the land bridges to spread to new regions. By the start of the warmer Holocene epoch, humans were in position to take advantage of the favorable conditions by developing agricultural and domestication techniques. Meanwhile, the mastodons, saber-toothed cats, giant ground sloths and other megafauna that reigned during the glacial period went extinct by its end.

The reasons for the disappearance of these giants, from human hunting to disease, are among the ice age mysteries that have yet to be fully explained. Scientists continue to study the evidence of these important periods, both to gain more insight into the Earth’s history and to help determine future climatic events.


Population and population change statistics

On 1 January 2020, the population of the EU was estimated at 447.7 million inhabitants, 0.9 million more than the previous year.

Between 1960 and 2020, the population of the EU grew from 354.5 million to 447.7 million, an increase of 93.2 million people.

Population change by component (annual crude rates), EU-27, 1960-2019

  • Note: Excluding French overseas departments up to and including 1997. Breaks in series: 1991, 1998, 2000-01, 2008, 2010-12, 2014, 2015 and 2017.
  • 1960: not available for 'net migration and statistical adjustment' and for 'natural change'
  • Source: Eurostat (online data code: demo_gind)

This article gives an overview of the development of European Union (EU) population statistics, detailing the two components of population change: natural population change and net migration plus statistical adjustment. More information on net migration is provided within an article on migration and migrant population statistics.

EU-27 population continues to grow

The current demographic situation in the EU-27 is characterised by continuing population growth. While the population of the EU-27 as a whole increased during 2019, the population of nine EU Member States declined. The natural change of the EU population has been negative since 2012, with more deaths than births recorded in the EU (4.7 million deaths and 4.2 million births in 2019). The population change (positive, with 0.9 million more inhabitants) is therefore due to net migration.

On 1 January 2020 the population of the EU-27 was estimated at 447.7 million inhabitants, which was 0.9 million more than a year before. The increase in population numbers during 2019 was above that recorded during 2018 (0.7 million).

Over a longer period, the population of the EU-27 grew from 354.5 million in 1960 to 447.7 million in 2020, an increase of 93.2 million people (see Figureف). The rate of population growth has slowed gradually in recent decades: for example, the EU-27’s population increased, on average, by about 0.9 million persons per year during the period 2005–20, compared with an average increase of around 3.0 million persons per year during the 1960s.

In 2019, deaths continued to outnumber live births in the EU-27, resulting in the aforementioned negative natural change in the population. The increase in population recorded during 2019 for the EU-27 was therefore due to net migration and statistical adjustment there were however variations in the patterns observed in the EU Member States as shown below. In 2019, net migration and statistical adjustment accounted for an increase of almost 1.4 million persons, more than in 2018 (1.2 million) since 1992, net migration and statistical adjustment has been the main determinant of population growth in the EU-27 (see Figureق for rates per 1𧄀 persons).

Net migration in the EU-27 increased considerably from the mid-1980s onwards, while the number of live births fell, and the number of deaths increased. The gap between live births and deaths in the EU-27 narrowed considerably from 1961 onwards (see Figureك). The natural change of the EU population has been negative since 2012 when the number of deaths passed the number of births. Since the number of deaths is expected to further increase as the baby-boom generation continues to age, and assuming that the fertility rate remains at a relatively low level, negative natural population change (more deaths than births) could well continue. In this case, the EU-27’s overall population decline or growth is likely to depend largely on the contribution made by migration.

Population change at a national level

The population of individual EU Member States on 1 January 2020 ranged from 0.5 million in Malta to 83.2 million in Germany. Germany, France, and Italy together comprised almost half (47 %) of the total EU-27 population on 1 January 2020 (see Tableف).

The population of the EU-27 increased during 2019 by 0.9 million people. Population growth was unevenly distributed across the EU Member States: a total of 18 Member States observed an increase in their respective populations, while the population fell in the remaining 9 Member States. Malta, Luxembourg, Cyprus, and Ireland recorded the highest population growth rates in 2019, with increases above 10.0 per 1𧄀 persons, five times the EU-27 average of 2.0 per 1𧄀 persons (see Tableق). Among these four EU Member States with the highest rates of population growth, the fastest expansion in population was recorded in Malta with an increase of 41.7 per 1𧄀 persons. The largest relative decreases in population were reported by Bulgaria (-7.0 per 1𧄀 persons), Latvia (-6.4 per 1𧄀 persons), Romania (-5.0 per 1𧄀 persons) and Croatia (-4.4 per 1𧄀 persons).

Analysing the two components of population change in the national data, eight types of population change can be identified, distinguishing growth or decline and the relative weights of natural change and net migration — see Tableك for the full typology. During 2019, the highest crude rate of natural increase of population was registered in Ireland (5.8 per 1𧄀 persons), followed by Cyprus (4.1) and Luxembourg (3.1). A total of 16 EU Member States had negative rates of natural change, with deaths outnumbering births the most in Bulgaria (-6.7 per 1𧄀 persons), Latvia (-4.7), Lithuania, Greece and Croatia (all -3.9), Hungary and Romania (both -3.8). In relative terms, Malta (40.4 per 1𧄀 persons), Luxembourg (16.6 ), Cyprus (9.6) and Spain (9.5) had the highest crude rates of net migration in 2019, while Latvia (-1.8 per 1𧄀 persons), Romania (-1.2), France (-0.8) and Croatia (-0.6) recorded the largest negative crude net migration rates.

Among the 18 EU Member States where the population increased in 2019, 10 recorded both a natural increase and positive net migration contributing to their population growth. In Czechia, Germany, Estonia, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia and Finland, the positive net migration was the sole driver of population growth, as natural population change was negative. The population growth in France was only due to positive natural change, while net migration was negative.

Of the 9 EU Member States that reported a reduction in their level of population during 2019, Greece, Italy, Hungary and Poland recorded a decline in the population solely due to negative natural change, while net migration was positive. In Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania the decrease in the level of population was mostly driven by negative natural change, supplemented by negative net migration.

Source data for tables and graphs

Data sources

The demographic balance provides an overview of annual demographic developments in the EU Member States statistics on population change are available in absolute figures and as crude rates.

Population change — or population growth — in a given year is the difference between the population size on 1 January of the given year and the corresponding level from 1 January of the previous year. It consists of two components: natural change and net migration plus statistical adjustment. Natural population change is the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths. If natural change is positive then it is often referred to as a natural increase. Net migration is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. In the context of the annual demographic balance, Eurostat produces net migration figures by taking the difference between total population change and natural change this concept is referred to as net migration plus statistical adjustment.

Context

Statistics on population change and the structure of population are increasingly used to support policymaking and to provide the opportunity to monitor demographic behaviour within political, economic, social and cultural contexts. In particular, this concerns demographic developments that focus on a likely reduction in the relative importance of the working-age population and a corresponding increase in the number of older persons. These statistics may be used to support a range of different analyses, including studies relating to population ageing and its effects on the sustainability of public finance and welfare, the evaluation of fertility as a background for family policies, or the economic and social impact of demographic change.


Space Race Heats Up: Men (And Chimps) Orbit Earth

In 1959, the Soviet space program took another step forward with the launch of Luna 2, the first space probe to hit the moon. In April 1961, the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to orbit Earth, traveling in the capsule-like spacecraft Vostok 1. For the U.S. effort to send a man into space, dubbed Project Mercury, NASA engineers designed a smaller, cone-shaped capsule far lighter than Vostok they tested the craft with chimpanzees, and held a final test flight in March 1961 before the Soviets were able to pull ahead with Gagarin’s launch. On May 5, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space (though not in orbit).

Later that May, President John F. Kennedy made the bold, public claim that the U.S. would land a man on the moon before the end of the decade. In February 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth, and by the end of that year, the foundations of NASA’s lunar landing program𠄽ubbed Project Apollo–were in place.


Assorted References

At least in an inchoate form, all the elements of catholicity—doctrine, authority, universality—are evident in the New Testament. The Acts of the Apostles begins with a depiction of the demoralized band of the disciples of

…who showed the influence of Roman Catholic teachings in some respects—derived from the writings of Jesuits in China—by advancing the idea of a creator god and retribution for ethical and religious failings in another world. These doctrines, however, were not accepted into the main current of Shintō. Hirata developed the…

…different kind of threat from Roman Catholicism.

For centuries Roman Catholicism was the dominant Christian influence on Native American peoples. In the 20th century various forms of Protestant Christianity took hold, especially Evangelical and Pentecostal.

…with the European merchants came Roman Catholic priests. Korea’s first significant contact with Christianity was through missionaries in China. Korean envoys to China in the 16th century brought back with them a world atlas and scientific instruments made by the priests, as well as literature on science and Christianity. Some…

Church organizations, which in the Spanish scheme of things were part of the overall governmental framework (the crown appointed bishops and many other high officials of the church), also came into the central areas in force on the heels of the conquest. Few clerics of…

…people are at least nominally Roman Catholic. About one-third of the population adhere to other Christian faiths or are nondenominational Christians. About one-sixth of Uruguayans are agnostics or atheists. Jews, mostly in Montevideo, make up a small minority, which is nevertheless one of the larger Jewish communities in South America.

16th century

The break with the Roman papacy and the establishment of an independent Church of England came during the reign of Henry VIII (1509–47). When Pope Clement VII refused to approve the annulment of Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the English Parliament, at Henry’s insistence, passed a series of…

…established religions of Europe, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, zealously sought to assure uniformity of belief in the regions they dominated. The courts inspired by them actively pursued not only the heterodox but also witches, the insane, and anyone who maintained an unusual style of life. The special papal court…

…the fiscal machinery of the church provoked a movement that at first demanded reform from within and ultimately chose the path of separation. When the Augustinian monk Martin Luther protested against the sale of indulgences in 1517, he found himself obliged to extend his doctrinal arguments until his stand led…

In the meantime the Reformation had taken hold in England. The beginning there was political rather than religious, a quarrel between the king and the pope of the sort that had occurred in the Middle Ages without resulting in a permanent schism and might…

…attacked the life of the church while he confronted its doctrine. Whereas they denounced the sins of churchmen, he was disillusioned by the whole scholastic scheme of redemption. The church taught that humans could atone for their sins through confession and absolution in the sacrament of penance. Luther found that…

…Jesuit missions to England, where Roman Catholic worship was prohibited. However, in subsequent years, he despaired of restoring Catholicism to his native country by peaceful means. He therefore called upon King Philip II of Spain to conquer England and assume the English throne. As a consequence, he was made a…

…Augsburg Interim primarily reflected a Catholic viewpoint. It did, however, allow clerical marriage and communion in both kinds (bread and wine) for the laity.

…the commingled interests of European Catholicism and personal aggrandizement. It is also necessary to understand this political struggle of the Catholic crown with its own ultramontane extremists and to perceive its fluctuations in changing circumstances, in order to realize the fundamental consistency of Catherine’s career. Her essentially moderate influence was…

…response to Protestant views, the Roman Catholic Church made its position clear at the Council of Trent (1546) when it dogmatically affirmed that the entire Latin Vulgate enjoyed equal canonical status. This doctrine was confirmed by the Vatican Council of 1870. In the Greek church the Synod of Jerusalem (1672)…

…he had abandoned the traditional Roman Catholic belief in transubstantiation—that Christ is rendered substantially present by the Eucharist (although the properties of bread and wine remain the same)—but retained his belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. As early as 1536 he was recognized by the northern…

…other members of the predominantly Catholic Rigsråd postponed the election of a new king they feared that the obvious candidate, Frederick’s son Prince Christian (later King Christian III), if chosen, would immediately introduce Lutheranism. They tried unsuccessfully to sponsor his younger brother Hans.

…less than that, however, for Roman Catholics, who constituted the majority of the population. In 1695 the Irish Parliament, dominated by the Ascendancy, passed the first of the Penal Laws—a series of harsh discriminatory measures against Catholics and Presbyterians in Ireland. These laws disenfranchised Catholics, placed restrictions on their ownership…

…Pope Clement VIII, by the Roman Catholic clergy in France, and by the parlements. Catholics tended to interpret the edict in its most restrictive sense. The Cardinal de Richelieu, who regarded its political and military clauses as a danger to the state, annulled them by the Peace of Alès in…

…force if necessary, to the Roman Catholic faith. This attempt, along with her unpopular marriage to the ardently Catholic king Philip II of Spain, aroused bitter Protestant opposition. In a charged atmosphere of treasonous rebellion and inquisitorial repression, Elizabeth’s life was in grave danger. For though, as her sister demanded,…

…past remained untouched, the semi-independent Roman Catholic Church, and it was left to the second Tudor to challenge its authority and plunder its wealth.

…of the last vestiges of Roman Catholicism. The controversy went to the root of society: Was the purpose of life spiritual or political? Was the role of the church to serve God or the crown? In 1576 two brothers, Paul and Peter Wentworth, led the Puritan attack in the Commons,…

…England and Wales, group of Roman Catholic martyrs executed by English authorities during the Reformation, most during the reign of Elizabeth I. An act of Parliament in 1571 made it high treason to question the queen’s title as head of the Church of England—thus making the practice of Roman Catholicism…

…(1) Everyone agreed that the Roman Catholic church was in need of correction. The lack of spirituality in high places, the blatant fiscalism, of which the unrestrained hawking of indulgences—the actual trigger of the Reformation—was a galling example, and the embroilment in political affairs all were symptoms of corruption long…

He appealed to Rome for a declaration of annulment. Popes had usually obliged kings in such matters, but Henry had picked both his time and his case badly. He was asking Pope Clement VII to help him discard the emperor’s aunt, but Clement, the emperor’s prisoner in 1527–28,…

La Sainte Ligue, association of Roman Catholics during the French Wars of Religion of the late 16th century it was first organized in 1576 under the leadership of Henri I de Lorraine, 3 e duc de Guise, to oppose concessions granted to the Protestants (Huguenots) by King Henry III. Although the…

…defended the Elizabethan church against Roman Catholics and Puritans. He upheld the threefold authority of the Anglican tradition—Bible, church, and reason. Roman Catholics put Bible and tradition on a parity as the authorities for belief, while Puritans looked to Scripture as the sole authority. Hooker avoided both extremes, allowing to…

…and when the prohibition against Roman Catholics began to ease again in the mid-19th century, arriving European priests were told there were no Japanese Christians left. A Roman Catholic church set up in Nagasaki in 1865 was dedicated to the 26 martyrs of 1597, and within the year 20,000 Kakure…

…to the expansion of Polish Roman Catholic influence, spearheaded by vigorous proselytization by the Jesuits. In the 17th century a religious Ukrainian brotherhood was established in Kyiv, as in other Ukrainian towns, to further this opposition and encourage Ukrainian nationalism. Peter Mogila (Petro Mohyla), a major theologian and metropolitan of…

…which were supported by the Roman Catholic church, and it took stern measures against Calvinism. Calvinists forcibly removed their coreligionists from prisons and occasionally even attacked monasteries. This group’s rejection of icons, paintings, statues, and valuables in churches sometimes led them to remove them and hand them over to the…

…division of Western Christendom between Roman Catholicism and the new Protestant traditions, mainly Lutheranism, Calvinism, the Anglican Communion, the Anabaptists, and the Antitrinitarians. He is one of the most influential figures in the history of Christianity.

…for the reform of the Roman Catholic church. His efforts to gain the right of marriage for priests failed, largely because of the opposition of Spain.

The Roman Catholic Church had unusual influence and autonomy in Milan. Charles Cardinal Borromeo, member of a rich noble family of Milan and nephew of Pope Pius IV (reigned 1559–65), resided in his diocese after 1565 as the model bishop of the Catholic Reformation. He instituted…

…against the Franciscan order, the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy, and the veneration of the saints. He early showed himself to be an independent thinker. After occasional participation in debates between Luther and the Roman Catholic theologian Johann Eck in Leipzig, he pursued intensive literary studies at the monastery of Beuditz…

The Roman Catholic missionaries that accompanied Coronado and de Soto worked assiduously to Christianize the native population. Many of the priests were hearty supporters of the Inquisition, and their pastoral forays were often violent beatings, dismemberment, and execution were all common punishments for the supposed heresies…

of Lutheranism and Catholicism in Germany, promulgated on September 25, 1555, by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire assembled earlier that year at Augsburg. The Peace allowed the state princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the religion of their domain and permitted the free emigration…

Roman Catholics in Britain and Ireland after the Reformation that penalized the practice of the Roman Catholic religion and imposed civil disabilities on Catholics. Various acts passed in the 16th and 17th centuries prescribed fines and imprisonment for participation in Catholic worship and severe penalties,…

…I, 1580–98), champion of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation. During his reign the Spanish empire attained its greatest power, extent, and influence, though he failed to suppress the revolt of the Netherlands (beginning in 1566) and lost the “Invincible Armada” in the attempted invasion of England (1588).

…Speyer in 1529, when the Roman Catholic emperor of Germany, Charles V, rescinded the provision of the Diet of Speyer in 1526 that had allowed each ruler to choose whether to administer the Edict of Worms (which banned Martin Luther’s writings and declared him a heretic and an enemy of…

…in the religious controversy between Catholics and Protestants, and the dependence of the small states in France’s borderlands upon an equilibrium of power between France and Spain.

…letters of consolation to persecuted Roman Catholics and making pastoral journeys. His An Epistle of Comfort was printed secretly in 1587 other letters circulated in manuscript.

…influence was marked by intense Roman Catholic missionary activity. Franciscans established centres in the country from 1543 onward. Jesuits were active in the north. Toward the end of the century, Dominicans and Augustinians arrived. With the conversion of Dharmapala, many members of the Sinhalese nobility followed suit. Dharmapala endowed missionary…

…all the properties of the Roman Catholic Church. The church at that time held 21 percent of Sweden’s land, as opposed to only 6 percent held by the crown. The appropriation of the possessions of the church thus added enormously to the wealth of the state. To some degree the…

…he viewed as the decadent Roman Catholic hierarchy, Zwingli favoured the return to the teachings of the Bible. While Luther strictly separated the spiritual and political realms, Zwingli emphasized that both the church and the state were subject to the law of Christ. In 1525 Zürich’s great council adopted his…

…Church, largest of the Eastern Catholic (also known as Eastern rite or Greek Catholic) churches, in communion with Rome since the Union of Brest-Litovsk (1596). Byzantine Christianity was established among the Ukrainians in 988 by St. Vladimir (Volodimir) and followed Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Temporary reunion with…

The church might prefer that Christians seek their well-being through faith, the sacraments, and the intercession of Mary and the saints, but distinctions between acceptable and unacceptable belief in hidden powers were difficult to make or to maintain. Most clergy shared the common beliefs in occult…

17th and 18th centuries

…1789 Baltimore became the first Roman Catholic diocese in the United States, and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1806–21) was the nation’s first Roman Catholic cathedral St. Mary’s Seminary and University was founded in 1791. The Shot Tower (1828) is a…

—died April 12, 1704, Paris), bishop who was the most eloquent and influential spokesman for the rights of the French church against papal authority. He is now chiefly remembered for his literary works, including funeral panegyrics for great personages.

…1685, Louis sought to impose Roman Catholicism on all his subjects. Thousands of Protestants emigrated those who remained were subjected to severe repression. In the first years of the 18th century, a wave of religious enthusiasm swept the strongly Protestant Cévennes. Prophets predicted the end of persecution, and many felt…

…keeping New France in the Roman Catholic faith.

…the French language and the Roman Catholic faith, gave the church power to enforce the collection of tithes, and formalized the authority of the seigneurs to collect cens et rentes. In addition, Quebec’s territory was greatly expanded, its western border henceforth stretching to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi…

…toleration to his Nonconformist and Roman Catholic subjects were sharply rebuffed in 1663, and throughout his reign the House of Commons was to thwart the more generous impulses of his religious policy. A more pervasive and damaging limitation was on his financial independence. Although the Parliament voted the king an…

…an attempt to reorganize the Roman Catholic Church in France on a national basis. It caused a schism within the French Church and made many devout Catholics turn against the Revolution.

He proposed to destroy Rome’s power in England and to replace it by the royal supremacy in the church. He was behind the first attacks on the papacy (1532) and the act against the payment by bishops of their first year’s revenue to Rome. He secured the submission of…

In 1667 the Roman Catholic Church made its own decision by putting Descartes’s works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Latin: “Index of Prohibited Books”) on the very day his bones were ceremoniously placed in Sainte-Geneviève-du-Mont in Paris. During his lifetime, Protestant ministers in the Netherlands called Descartes a…

…which was supported by both Roman Catholic and Protestant theologians. These thinkers held that, because all things are created by God with a given nature, there can be no evolutionary development of animals or of the universe as a whole. For Aristotle, all living things possess a spirit or “soul,”…

…were rigidly drawn, and the Roman Catholic Church served as the strong right arm of temporal authority. A cruel, exploitative slave-based society and economy came into being.

…that moderates of all persuasions, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike, might dwell together in his church. He offered to preside at a general council of all the Christian churches—Catholic and Protestant—to seek a general reconciliation. Liberals in all churches took his offer seriously. He sought to find a formula for…

…the monolithic authority of the Roman Catholic Church. For Martin Luther as for Bacon or Descartes, the way to truth lay in the application of human reason. Received authority, whether of Ptolemy in the sciences or of the church in matters of the spirit, was to be subject to the…

Among Roman Catholic countries France’s situation was in some ways unique. Even there orthodox doctrines remained entrenched in such institutions as the Sorbonne some bishops might be worldly but others were conscientious monasteries decayed but parish life was vital and curés (parish priests) well trained. Nor…

…without destroying the idea of catholicism to which the Roman church gave institutional form. The word catholic survived in the creeds of Protestant churches, such as that of England. Calvin had thought in catholic, not sectarian, terms when he mourned for the Body of Christ, “bleeding, its members severed.” Deeper…

…to mitigate the harshness of Roman Catholic intolerance by open meetings with the Protestants (1686–87) to present Catholic doctrine in a reasonable light. While unsympathetic to Protestant belief, he equally repudiated forced conversions.

The king, moreover, was a Christian monarch and as such was endowed with quasi-priestly functions. He was anointed at his coronation with holy chrism said to have been brought from heaven by a dove. It was thought that, as evidence of his special status, he could cure scrofula by his…

…that sweeping reform might return Roman Catholicism to its basic ideals, shorn of aristocratic trappings and superfluous privileges, but they assumed that the church itself would collaborate in the process. In the Assembly’s view, however, nationalization of church property gave the state responsibility for regulating the church’s temporal affairs, such…

…nationalize the lands of the Roman Catholic Church in France to pay off the public debt led to a widespread redistribution of property. The bourgeoisie and the peasant landowners were undoubtedly the chief beneficiaries, but some farm workers also were able to buy land. The land transfer was made through…

…and the beginning of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. But the tide in Rome was turning against the Copernican theory, and in 1615, when the cleric Paolo Antonio Foscarini (c. 1565–1616) published a book arguing that the Copernican theory did not conflict with scripture, Inquisition consultants examined the question and pronounced the…

…made minor concessions to British Roman Catholics, who were excluded from civil rights. Anti-Catholic prejudice, however, had been a powerful emotion in Britain since the Reformation in the 16th century, and Roman Catholicism tended to be associated by many with political absolutism and persecution. A movement to repeal the Catholic…

Roman Catholics and those implicated in the Irish rebellion were permanently disenfranchised. Religious toleration was denied to Roman Catholics and upholders of episcopacy.

…and cultural roles of the church—in particular, the supranational character of the papacy, the immunity of clerics from the state’s legal and fiscal apparatus, the church’s intolerance and intransigence in theological and institutional matters, as well as its wealth and property—constituted the central problems in the reform schemes of Italy’s…

…he was admitted to the Roman Catholic Church, though on his brother’s insistence he continued to take the Anglican sacraments until 1672, and he attended Anglican services until 1676. Charles II also insisted that James’s daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised in the Protestant faith.

…Belgium]), Flemish leader of the Roman Catholic reform movement known as Jansenism. He wrote biblical commentaries and pamphlets against the Protestants. His major work was Augustinus, published by his friends in 1640. Although condemned by Pope Urban VIII in 1642, it was of critical importance in the Jansenist movement.

…as the officials of the church, the Encyclopédie would have been throttled. It was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, and a ban of excommunication was pronounced on any who should read it but even Rome was equivocal. The knowledge that Pope Benedict XIV was privately sympathetic lessened the…

…developed a strong distaste for Roman Catholicism. In 1596 the patriarch of Alexandria, Meletios Pegas, sent Lucaris to Poland to lead the Orthodox opposition to the Union of Brest-Litovsk, which had sealed a union of the Orthodox metropolitanate of Kiev with Rome. For six years Lucaris served as rector of…

…the Eighty Years’ War, when Roman Catholics still frequently bore the burden of their preference for the rule of the Catholic monarchs in the southern Netherlands. Sizable islands of Roman Catholicism remained in most of the United Provinces, while Gelderland and the northern parts of Brabant and Flanders conquered by…

Roman Catholics, still without political rights but facing milder restrictions, fell into a quarrel between adherents of Jansenism (see Roman Catholicism: Jansenism), which followed Augustinian theology, especially in the matter of predestination, and supporters of Rome, in particular the Jesuits the former split off to…

Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won.…

Roman Catholicism was Sarmatized in its turn, assuming a more intolerant posture toward other denominations. The struggles against Lutheran Swedes and Prussians, Orthodox Russians, and Muslim Turks and Tatars strengthened the belief in Poland’s mission as a Catholic bastion. The expulsion in 1658 of Polish…

…Rebellion, (1637–38), uprising of Japanese Roman Catholics, the failure of which virtually ended the Christian movement in 17th-century Japan and furthered government determination to isolate Japan from foreign influences.

…1618, when the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II, in his role as king of Bohemia, attempted to impose Roman Catholic absolutism on his domains, and the Protestant nobles of both Bohemia and Austria rose up in rebellion. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. In 1625 King Christian IV of…

…half of the population were Catholic the rest were Protestant. Neither bloc was prepared to let the other mobilize an army. Similar paralysis was to be found in most other regions: the Reformation and Counter-Reformation had separated Germany into hostile but evenly balanced confessional camps.

19th century

…John Henry Newman, of the Roman Catholic monthly the Rambler, but he laid down his editorship in 1864 because of papal criticism of his rigorously scientific approach to history as evinced in that journal. After 1870, when the First Vatican Council formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility, Acton was all…

…one-third of Germans who professed Roman Catholicism. In Prussia the minister of public worship and education, Adalbert Falk, with Bismarck’s blessing, introduced a series of bills establishing civil marriage, limiting the movement of the clergy, and dissolving religious orders. All church appointments were to be approved by the state. Clerical…

…civil disabilities granted to the Roman Catholics of Britain and Ireland in a series of laws during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. After the Reformation, Roman Catholics in Britain had been harassed by numerous restrictions. In Britain, Roman Catholics could not purchase land, hold civil or military offices…

…had made the issue of Roman Catholic emancipation urgent. Rebellion in Ireland, in Pitt’s view, could not be cured simply by the union of the British and Irish Parliaments. Conciliation, by the political emancipation of the Roman Catholics, was a necessary concomitant of union. George III believed this proposal to…

While holding that Catholic Emancipation was a condition of any genuine Whig government, he accepted the fact that parliamentary reform must wait until there was solid support for it in the country. He thought the political stability of Britain was endangered both by the reactionary postwar policy of…

…adherence of the population to Roman Catholicism. He felt that in time nationalism could be created and more social cohesion would emerge as a result but that meanwhile Ecuador needed a period of peace and strong government. When he became president, therefore, he based his regime on two factors—strong authoritarian…

…made new arrangements with the Roman Catholic church to encourage religion against political attacks. Pope Pius IX, who had been chased from Rome during the final surge of agitation in 1848, turned adamantly against new political ideas. In the Syllabus of Errors accompanying the encyclical Quanta cura (“With What Great…

…new pope, Leo XIII, the Roman Catholic church moved more formally to accommodate to modern politics. The encyclical Rerum Novarum (“Of New Things,” 1891) urged Catholics to accept political institutions such as parliaments and universal suffrage it proclaimed sympathy for working people against the excesses of capitalism, justifying moderate trade…

…papacy in 1802 reintegrated the Roman Catholic Church into French society and ended the cycle of bare toleration and persecution that had begun in 1792. Having immediately halted the campaign to enforce the republican calendar (which was quietly abolished on January 1, 1806), the Consulate then extended an olive branch…

…reassert the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, which had been undermined by Enlightenment skepticism and by the Revolutionary upheaval. The Concordat of 1802 had allowed the beginning of a religious revival, which gained strength after 1814. The best-selling Le Génie du christianisme (1802 Genius of Christianity), by the Romantic…

…came into conflict with the Roman Catholic church in 19th-century French Canada. Founded in Montreal on Dec. 17, 1844, it soon became a forum for discussing the problems of the day, maintaining the largest free library in Montreal. The membership of the parent organization in Montreal reached 700, and branches…

…in the country was the Roman Catholic Church. The Risorgimento had deprived the church of the Papal States, including Rome itself, and of much of its income. The church had lost its previous virtual monopoly of education and welfare, and compulsory state education was deliberately secular. Many religious orders had…

Nor could the organized Roman Catholic movement easily make open arrangements with the Giolitti government. The Catholics too had founded trade unions and workers’ cooperatives, as well as mutual aid societies and rural banks, throughout northern Italy in the 1890s. This development followed Pope Leo XIII’s embrace of social…

…economic monopoly held by the Roman Catholic Church and the landed aristocracy. He also believed that political stability could be achieved only through the adoption of a constitutional form of government based on a federal system.

…von Bismarck to subject the Roman Catholic church to state controls. The term came into use in 1873, when the scientist and Prussian liberal statesman Rudolf Virchow declared that the battle with the Roman Catholics was assuming “the character of a great struggle in the interest of humanity.”

Liberals saw the Roman Catholic church as politically reactionary and feared the appeal of a clerical party to the more than one-third of Germans who professed Roman Catholicism. Both Bismarck and the liberals doubted the loyalty of the Catholic population to the Prussian-centred and, therefore, primarily Protestant nation.…

The Roman Catholic Church also was the target of ever more aggressive liberal attacks after mid-century. In much of Latin America the church had been the preeminent source of capital and a major property owner. As in the case of indigenous communities, the justification for those…

…laws of La Reforma, establish Roman Catholicism as the exclusive religion, restore the religious orders, remove the church from its dependence on civil authorities, turn education over to ecclesiastics, and return properties confiscated and sold by the republicans. Replying that he, not outsiders, would decide such matters, Maximilian issued decrees…

…leader and orator who advocated Roman Catholicism as an instrument of social reform.

Jews, Roman Catholics, and numerous ethnic groups lived in Manhattan before the end of the 17th century, but political control remained in the hands of the established merchant elite. When the American Revolution began, more prominent Dutch families—the Van Cortlandts, De Peysters, and Schuylers—supported the cause…

…a cardinal deacon in the Roman Catholic Church. His eloquent books, notably Parochial and Plain Sermons (1834–42), Lectures on the Prophetical Office of the Church (1837), and University Sermons (1843), revived emphasis on the dogmatic authority of the church and urged reforms of the Church of England after the pattern…

…7), Italian head of the Roman Catholic church whose pontificate (1846–78) was the longest in history and was marked by a transition from moderate political liberalism to conservatism. Notable events of his reign included the declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854), the Syllabus of Errors (1864), and…

…on the civil liberties of Roman Catholics. Irish disorders centred, as they had since the Act of Union in 1801, on the issue of Catholic emancipation, a favourite cause of the Whigs, who had been out of power since 1807. During the 18th century, Catholics in England had achieved a…

The Roman Catholic Church was growing in importance not only in the Irish sections of the industrial cities but also among university students and teachers. Dissent had a grip on the whole culture of large sections of the middle classes, dismissed abruptly by Matthew Arnold as…

20th century

Northern Ireland

…and often antagonistic groupings—the indigenous Roman Catholic Irish and the immigrant Protestant English and Scots—date from that period, and they have played a significant role in molding Northern Ireland’s development. The settlers dominated County Antrim and northern Down, controlled the Lagan corridor toward Armagh, and also formed powerful minorities elsewhere.

Despite its nominal proscription, the Roman Catholic Church claimed the allegiance of almost the entire population, except the newcomers from Britain. English-born settlers gravitated to the Church of Ireland, a Protestant church modeled on the Church of England. Scottish settlers brought with them the ardent Calvinism that had recently established…

…Sunday, January 30, 1972, by Roman Catholic civil rights supporters that turned violent when British paratroopers opened fire, killing 13 and injuring 14 others (one of the injured later died). Bloody Sunday precipitated an upsurge in support for the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which advocated violence against the United Kingdom…

…population still claims to be Roman Catholic, while only a small proportion belongs to Protestant denominations. During the period of New France (1534–1763), Roman Catholicism was the official religion, and French Protestants were prevented from settling in the colony. After 1760 freedom of religious practice was authorized by the British…

In the 1960s the Roman Catholic-led civil rights movement in Northern Ireland was inspired by events in the United States. Its initial focus was fighting discriminatory gerrymandering that had been securing elections for Protestant unionists. Later, internment of Catholic activists by the British government sparked both a civil disobedience…

…attention to dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. In the 1960s Patriarch Athenagoras I and Pope Paul VI met in Jerusalem, Istanbul, and Rome, symbolically lifting the anathemas imposed in 1054 and making other gestures of rapprochement, though these moves were sometimes mistakenly interpreted as if they were ending the…

…among them, as with the Roman Catholic church. There is virtually complete religious tolerance in England and no longer any overt prejudice against Catholics. The decline in churchgoing has been thought to be an indicator of decline in religious belief, but opinion polls substantiate the view that belief in God…

…of traditional elites, including the Catholic church.

Many Roman Catholics were outraged by the triumph of the anticlericals, and they responded to the Vatican’s urging to sabotage the new system. They resisted (sometimes violently) the transfer of church property to state ownership and refused to establish lay associations to govern the church. By…

The head of the Roman Catholic Church, József Cardinal Mindszenty, who refused to follow their example, was arrested on transparent charges in December 1948 and condemned to life imprisonment. The monastic orders were dissolved. Thereafter, the Roman Catholic Church accepted financial terms similar to those offered to other churches,…

…in the country was the Roman Catholic Church. The Vatican implicitly supported Mussolini in the early years and was rewarded in February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, which settled the “Roman Question” at last. Vatican City became an independent state, Italy paid a large financial indemnity to the pope for…

Regular church attendance fell sharply, from about 70 percent in the mid-1950s to about 30 percent in the 1980s. The membership of Catholic Action fell to about 650,000 by 1978, about one-fourth of its figure in 1966, and in the late 1960s Catholic trade unions allied…

…in the history of the Roman Catholic Church by his openness to change (aggiornamento), shown especially in his convoking of the Second Vatican Council. He wrote several socially important encyclicals, most notably Pacem in Terris.

…as the “centre of the Catholic world and place of pilgrimage.” Article 20 stated that all bishops were to take an oath of loyalty to the state and had to be Italian subjects speaking the Italian language.

Roman Catholicism continued to be a powerful force in the second half of the 20th century. Its influence could be seen in the continuing prohibition, almost everywhere, of abortion and in the tendency to play down official support (which nevertheless existed) for birth control campaigns.…

In the Roman Catholic Church, the movement can be traced back to the mid-19th century, when it was initially connected with monastic worship, especially in the Benedictine communities in France, Belgium, and Germany. After about 1910, it spread to Holland, Italy, and England and subsequently to the…

…led to his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1929, and he is now often referred to as a theistic or Christian existentialist. Marcel’s approach to religious belief was notably existentialist, and it is no surprise that he distanced himself from traditional philosophy of religion. Indeed, he remained suspicious of attempts…

…conservatism dominated the early 20th-century Roman Catholic Church.

…but as head of the church. Concurrently, a concordat established the validity of church marriage in Italy, provided compulsory religious instruction for Catholic schoolchildren, and declared Roman Catholicism to be Italy’s only religion of state.

…Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church, who had a long, tumultuous, and controversial pontificate (1939–58). During his reign as pope, the papacy confronted the ravages of World War II (1939–45), the abuses of the Nazi, fascist, and Soviet regimes, the horror of the Holocaust, the challenge

…United States who left the Roman Catholic Church. From 1907 until 2003 it was a member of the Union of Utrecht and in full communion of the Old Catholic churches in 2006 it entered a limited communion agreement with Rome. Headquarters and a seminary are in Scranton, Pa., U.S.

Roman Catholicism is the primary religion of ethnic Hungarians and Swabian Germans. The Eastern rite (Uniate) church is prominent in Transylvania. In 1948 it was forcibly united with the Romanian Orthodox Church by the communist regime, but its independence was restored after 1989. Protestantism, both…

…countryside by the Calvinist and Roman Catholic Hungarian nobility and in the cities by the Lutheran German-speaking Saxon upper class. A large Romanian population lived there also, but Romanians were excluded from public affairs and privileges because they were overwhelmingly peasant and Orthodox. Their fortunes improved when Transylvania was brought…

800–1500

…in permanent opposition to the Roman church and raised a continued protest against the corruption of the clergy of their time. The Albigensian theologians and ascetics, known in the south of France as bons hommes or bons chrétiens, were always few in number.

…King Henry IV (later Holy Roman emperor) fought for control of the church in Germany. In 1075 Margrave Ernest, who had regained the Neumark and the Bohemian March for his family, was killed in the Battle of the Unstrut, fighting on the side of Henry IV against the rebellious Saxons.…

…fell victim to disputes between Roman Catholics and the followers of the Bohemian religious reformer Jan Hus, who was burned as a heretic in 1415. Wars between Bohemian Hussites and the Roman Catholics of Bohemia and Germany engulfed the kingdom until compacts were negotiated in 1436 that granted the more-moderate…

…the enormous wealth accumulated by the church in a comparatively short time. Moral corruption had infected a large percentage of the clergy and spread also among the laity. Prague, with its large number of clerics, suffered more corruption than the countryside. Both the king and the archbishop showed favour to…

Both the victorious Catholic Church and the wealthy laymen regarded the Baroque style as the most faithful expression of their religious convictions and their worldly ambitions. For about 100 years, the Baroque dominated in architecture, sculpture, and painting and influenced literature, drama, and music. The external appearance of Prague…

Boris originally intended to accept Roman Christianity, but an unsuccessful war with the Byzantines forced him to adopt the Orthodox faith of Constantinople (864). Boris (at his baptism he took the Christian name Michael), his family, and the nobles who supported his policy were baptized one night in secret by…

…essentially nonheretical branch of the Roman Catholic Church, based in monastic houses in which some Eastern Orthodox practices also were observed.

…dignity of emperor of the Romans. For all those reasons, Charlemagne, king of the Franks and Lombards by right of conquest, assented to his coronation as emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day, 800, by Pope Leo III. No longer a barbarian king, Charlemagne became, by virtue of the symbolism…

…of stirring the conscience of Western Christendom. His father had been skeptical about the benefits of such a policy, knowing that it would antagonize most of his own people and arouse the suspicion of the Turks. The proposal was made, however, at the Council of Florence in 1439, attended by…

…therefore, only natural that the Roman Catholic Church looked for potential converts among non-Muslim people of Asia. After Franciscan envoys brought back information on what was known as Cathay (northern China) in the mid-13th century, Pope Nicholas IV, a former Franciscan, dispatched a Franciscan mission to the court of the…

…into the conquered lands a Latin ecclesiastical organization and hierarchy. The Greek patriarch of Antioch was removed, and all subsequent incumbents were Latin except in one brief period before 1170, when imperial pressure brought about the installation of a Greek. The Eastern Orthodox patriarch in Jerusalem left before the conquest…

…discipline and order into the English church. The see of York was subordinated to Canterbury, and efforts were made to bring the ecclesiastical affairs of Ireland and Scotland under Lanfranc’s control. Several church councils were held in England to legislate for the English church, as similar councils did in Normandy.…

A very pious Catholic, he especially favoured the Jesuits. Yet, basing his policies chiefly on religious principles, he suffered from discrepancies between his religious goals and the maxims of a modern raison d’état. An indecisive man, he depended much on the influence of his counselors and his Jesuit…

The Roman Catholic church grew in wealth and power, and by the 12th century its schools were flourishing, training generations of clerks in the liberal arts. Society itself became less embattled, and the nobility became more leisured and sophisticated. The machismo of the epics was tempered…

…in the Reich: the German church. By ancient Germanic custom, moreover, the founder of a church did not lose his estate in the endowment that he had made he remained its proprietor and protecting lord. Still, the bishoprics and certain ancient abbeys, such as Sankt Gallen, Reichenau, Fulda, and Hersfeld,…

…put the defense of the Roman Church into the king’s hands. But after defeating the Saxons, Henry considered himself strong enough to cancel his agreements with the pope and to nominate his court chaplain as archbishop of Milan. The violation of the agreement on investiture called into question the king’s…

As a promoter of church reform willing to compromise with the papacy, he had the support of the church. He took his father prisoner and forced him to abdicate (Dec. 31, 1105) but was not certain of his throne until his father’s death on Aug. 7, 1106. He had…

…the most important 15th-century Czech religious Reformer, whose work was transitional between the medieval and the Reformation periods and anticipated the Lutheran Reformation by a full century. He was embroiled in the bitter controversy of the Western Schism (1378–1417) for his entire career, and he was convicted of heresy at…

The Hussites broke with Rome in using a Czech liturgy and in administering Holy Communion to the laity under the forms of both bread and wine. (The doctrine supporting this was called Utraquism and the more moderate Hussites were called Utraquists.)

…11th and 12th centuries the ecclesiastical reform movement of western Europe was extended into Ireland. As the kings of Munster and Connaught, along with those of Leinster and Ulster, each struggled to secure the dominant position that had once been held by Brian Boru, they came to realize the value…

The Roman Catholic Church in Jerusalem, established in 1099 during the First Crusade, was dissolved when the Muslims won the city in 1244. The Franciscan order, which since 1334 has been the “Custodian of the Holy Land,” is charged with the safekeeping of Roman Catholic rights…

John’s attention was diverted and his prestige disastrously affected by relations with the papacy. In the disputed election to the see of Canterbury following the death of Hubert Walter, Pope Innocent III quashed the election of John’s nominee in procuring the election of Stephen

Joseph’s conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, however, posed more difficult problems. He established national training colleges for priests and deprived the bishops of their authority and limited their communications with the Pope. The power of the church was even more affected by the dissolution of more than 700…

A new concordat with the Pope, concluded in 1472, allowed him to control the appointment of bishops. He augmented the royal revenues by raising taxes on his own authority. The meetings of notables and the assemblies of the estates had only a consultative role. Nevertheless, Louis XI sought the support…

…affairs, the organization of the universal church and local churches acquired a symmetry and consistency hardly possible before 1100. An 11th-century anonymous text that was accepted by canon law identified two orders of Christians, the clergy and the laity. It considered the clergy largely in a monastic context, indicating that…

His long struggle with the Roman papacy ended with the transfer of the Curia to Avignon, France (beginning the so-called Babylonian Captivity, 1309–77). He also secured French royal power by wars on barons and neighbours and by restriction of feudal usages. His three sons were successively kings of France: Louis…

…with tyrannical rulers and a corrupt clergy. After the overthrow of the Medici in 1494, Savonarola was the sole leader of Florence, setting up a democratic republic. His chief enemies were the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI, who issued numerous restraints against him, all of which were ignored.

Michael Cerularius) and the Western church (led by Pope Leo IX). The mutual excommunications by the pope and the patriarch in 1054 became a watershed in church history. The excommunications were not lifted until 1965, when Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I, following

…Constantinople and the church of Rome. While 1054 is the symbolic date of the separation, the agonizing division was six centuries in the making and the result of several different issues. The Eastern church sharply disagreed when the Western church introduced into the Nicene Creed the doctrine that the Holy…

The church received the right to administer justice according to canon law and a separate system of taxation, protected by royal privileges, and the pretenders sought the church’s sanction for their candidacies. The first known coronation by the archbishop was that of Erik Knutsson in 1210.…

…Lithuanians into the Latin (Roman Catholic) church. The spread of Catholicism among the Lithuanians and the attendant diffusion of the Polish language, culture, and notions of political and social order among the Lithuanian nobility eroded the position of the Orthodox Ruthenians, as had happened earlier in Galicia. In 1569,…

The Roman Catholic Church, steadily expanding eastward into Ukraine, enjoyed the support of the state and legal superiority over the Orthodox. External pressures and restrictions were accompanied by a serious internal decline in the Ruthenian church. From the mid-16th century, both Catholicism, newly reinvigorated by the…

…their views and conform to Roman Catholic doctrine. The sect continued to multiply, however, among townspeople, merchants, gentry, and even the lower clergy. Several knights of the royal household gave their support, as well as a few members of the House of Commons.

…beliefs and practices of the church. Theologically, this was facilitated by a strong predestinarianism that enabled him to believe in the “invisible” church of the elect, constituted of those predestined to be saved, rather than in the “visible” church of Rome—that is, in the organized, institutional church of his day.…

China

…contributions by the Jesuits endeared Roman Catholicism to Kangxi, who gave official permission for its propagation in 1692 and later gave French missionaries a residence within the imperial city and built a church for them in Beijing in gratitude for curing him of malaria. His sympathy attracted to China more…

…modify the imperial reserve regarding Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholic preaching remained officially forbidden after the “Rites Controversy”—a quarrel over the compatibility of ancestor worship with Roman Catholicism—that pitted the pope’s legate against the Kangxi emperor at the beginning of the 18th century. Although the work of the missionaries continued to…

Contribution by

…been called the founder of Catholicism in the West.

…most influential figures in the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation in the 16th century, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Paris in 1534.

Approved by the pope in 1540, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was already well known for its spirit of apostolic initiative. Its members were distinguishing themselves in scientific research as well as in their voyages to new worlds. Stimulated by the examples of his seniors, Ricci dedicated himself…

…day December 3), the greatest Roman Catholic missionary of modern times who was instrumental in the establishment of Christianity in India, the Malay Archipelago, and Japan. In Paris in 1534 he pronounced vows as one of the first seven members of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits

Missions and missionaries

The Roman Catholic Church, reformed and revitalized after the Council of Trent (1545–63), sent missionaries into the newly discovered and conquered territories of three Catholic empires: Spain, Portugal, and France. As a result, Christianity was established in Central and South America, in the Caribbean, and in…

In the 15th century European nations began a process of exploration and colonization that brought them more fully into contact with the rest of the world and facilitated the spread of Christianity. Motivated in part by Christian zeal, Portugal’s Prince Henry the Navigator (1394–1460) launched exploratory voyages along the…

In the Belgian sphere the Roman Catholic church took a high profile and eventually established a Catholic university through which to train not only colonial whites but also a small elite of Black Africans. The rival to the state church was an independent Black church, built in honour of the…

To 800 AD

…under the jurisdiction of the Roman pope until 732. In that year the iconoclast Byzantine emperor Leo III, angered by Albanian archbishops because they had supported Rome in the Iconoclastic Controversy, detached the Albanian church from the Roman pope and placed it under the patriarch of Constantinople. When the Christian…

…there was also a powerful Roman Catholic party anxious to reforge the links with Rome, in support of whom St. Germanus of Auxerre visited Britain in 429. It may have been partly to thwart the plans of this party that Vortigern made the mistake (c. 430 the date given by…

…relations between the empire and Roman Catholic Europe. The Lombard advance, it may be remembered, had restricted Byzantine authority in Italy to the exarchate of Ravenna, and to that quarter the popes of the 7th century, themselves ordinarily of Greek or Syrian origin, turned for protection against the common enemy.…

…made of Clovis’s conversion to Catholicism. One of the first Germanic kings to do so, he did, in fact, convert to Catholicism, but recent analysis of the contemporary sources that describe his reign—especially of a letter written by Avitus of Vienne congratulating him on his baptism—suggests that Clovis did not…

…a leader of the Gallo-Roman aristocracy, Clovis converted to Catholic Christianity with some 3,000 of his army in 498. This traditional account of the conversion, however, has been questioned by scholars, especially because of the echoes of the conversion of Constantine that Gregory so clearly incorporated in his history.…

…Africa that broke with the Roman Catholics in 312 over the election of Caecilian as bishop of Carthage the name derived from their leader, Donatus (d. c. 355). Historically, the Donatists belong to the tradition of early Christianity that produced the Montanist and Novatianist movements in Asia Minor and the…

Christians were still a minority at the end of the 3rd century in all levels of society, but they were in a good position to benefit from Constantine’s adoption of the religion and his grants of various privileges to the clergy. At that time (313)…

…the apostolic origin of the church of Rome, was incompatible with the Eastern idea that the importance of certain local churches—Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and, later, Constantinople—could be determined only by their numerical and political significance. For the East, the highest authority in settling doctrinal disputes was the ecumenical council.

…son were, however, Catholic, and Catholics were common among the Lombards as a whole from at least the 590s as well. Germanic peoples had often been Arians in the 5th and 6th centuries (the Ostrogoths were, for example), but the Lombards seem to have been less committed to Arianism than…

…Latin Christians adopted the term Catholic (from catholicus, “universal”). The term catholic Christianity was originally used to authenticate a normative, orthodox Christian cult (system of religious belief and ritual) on the grounds of its universality and to characterize different beliefs and practices as heterodox on the grounds that they were…

…instructive in showing that the Roman church, even in the late 1st century, was asserting its right to intervene in the affairs of other churches. The letters of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch at the beginning of the 2nd century, depict the position of the monarchical bishop, flanked by subordinate presbyters…

…restored and was reconverted to Catholicism by St. Martin of Braga. When Muslim forces invaded in 711, the only serious Gothic resistance was made at Mérida upon its fall the northwest submitted. Berber troops were placed in central Portugal and Galicia. When ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I set up the Umayyad monarchy

…were henceforth to be considered Catholic Christians, a designation that here appears for the first time in a document.

United States

… in its early predominance of Roman Catholicism. Because the first European settlers in Detroit were French Roman Catholics, many immigrants of that faith were attracted to the city even before the large Irish, Italian, and Polish immigrations of the 19th century. Detroit was made a diocese in 1833 and an…


Age dependency ratio

Dependency ratio of population is a ratio of people who are generally not in the labor force (the dependents) to workforce of a country (the productive part of population). The dependent part includes the population under 15 years old and people aged 65 and over. The productive part of population accordingly consists of population between 15 and 64 years.

This ratio shows the pressure on productive population produced by the dependent part of population.

The total dependency ratio of population in Ireland is 48.7 %.

The value of 48.7 % is relatively low. It shows that the dependent part of population is less than a half of the working part. In other words the working population (labor force) in Ireland must provide goods for itself and cover expenditure on children and aged persons. And this part of population is less than 50% of working population. The value of less than 50% means that the pressure on productive population in Ireland is relatively low.

Child dependency ratio

Child dependency ratio is a ratio of people below working age (under 15) to workforce of a country.

Child dependency ratio in Ireland is 31.4 %.

Aged dependency ratio

Aged dependency ratio is a ratio of people above working age (65+) to workforce of a country.

Aged dependency ratio in Ireland is 17.2 %.

Source: The estimation data for section "Ireland age dependency ratio" is based on the latest demographic and social statistics by United Nations Statistics Division .


Dataset: Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

The latest dataset, Mid-2019: April 2020 local authority district codes was not updated from the early release in May 2020. The population estimates in these tables were correct but information on Northern Ireland local government districts and component of change were not included. All previous versions are available from the link in this publication.

We apologise for any inconvenience.

The latest detailed time-series tables used the uncorrected estimates of the 80+population in local authorities in Scotland from Mid-2002 to Mid-2010 in Tables MYEB1 and MYEB3. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page.

We apologise for any inconvenience.

Small errors occurred in the detailed time series Tables MYEB1, MYEB3 and UK population estimates 1838 to 2017, affecting Scotland's council area estimates from Mid-2002 to Mid-2010. This was due to an issue with the method of rebasing the population estimates using the 2011 Census results. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page.

We apologise for any inconvenience.

Small errors occurred in the detailed time series Tables MYEB1 and MYEB3 affecting Scotland's council area estimates from Mid-2002 to Mid-2010. This was due to an issue with the method of rebasing the population estimates using the 2011 Census results. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page. We apologise for any inconvenience.

Small errors occurred in mid-2012 and mid-2013 Tables MYE3 due to a processing issue affecting Northern Ireland local authority estimates. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page. We apologise for any inconvenience.

A small error occurred in Mid-2015 Table MYEB3_summary_components_of_change_series_UK_(0215) due to a processing error in the Northern Ireland subnational internal migration data for mid-2002 to mid-2012. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page. We apologise for any inconvenience.

A small error occurred in Mid-2001 to Mid-2010 Table MYE6PE3_mid-2001-mid-2012-unformatted-syoa-data-file due to a processing error which resulted in Buckinghamshire being omitted from the dataset. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page.

We apologise for any inconvenience.

A small error occurred in Mid-2014 Table MYEB1_detailed_population_estimates_series_UK_(0114) due to a processing error for Scotland LA Dumfries and Galloway mid-2013 population estimates. We have corrected this error. You can see all previous versions of this data on the previous versions page.

We apologise for any inconvenience.

Notices

Population estimates for areas within England and Wales for mid-2012 to mid-2016, released prior to 22nd March 2018, have been superseded. The revisions incorporate improved methods for international emigration at the local authority, previously unavailable data for international immigration at the local authority level and improvements to our accounting of the dependents of foreign armed forces personnel. Provided by administrative area, single year of age and sex.

Mid-2015 population estimates for areas within Northern Ireland will be published Thursday 6 October at 09.30

We published corrected UK population estimates for the years 2012 to 2014 incorporating corrected estimates for Scotland on 28 April 2016.

They address the previously announced error of the age distribution in the council areas of Scotland presented in the last release published 25 June 2015. These errors only affect areas within Scotland population estimates for England, Wales and Northern Ireland are unaffected. Whilst the estimated age distribution of the UK population is affected for the period, the total estimates of the UK population remain valid. Further information on the causes of the errors, their impact and how decisions were reached on the approach taken is available in the Quality Management Information document available on the ONS website.


PhD opportunities in Ireland – what’s on offer for 2021?

Ireland’s renowned university system dates back to the 16th century. Despite the country’s comparatively small size, it has many universities that are among the best, globally.

The ‘Emerald Isle’ has a rich cultural history, reflected in its many famous figures of the Arts and Humanities such as Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and Seamus Heaney. Ireland has also invested considerably in Science, Engineering and Technology through its academic enterprise partnerships with industry.

  • International outlook – the country is popular among international students giving Ireland a diverse and young environment
  • Academic legacy – Ireland has one of the oldest university systems in the world, and is home to Trinity College Dublin, an ‘Ancient University’ of the UK and Ireland
  • Enterprise opportunities – Ireland is moving towards more structured PhDs supporting practice-based and industrial doctoral programmes with a focus on specialist transferrable skills
  • An EU country with native English-speakers – the Irish Republic is an English-speaking country of the Eurozone (along with Malta) and is home to many multinational companies with opportunities for future PhD graduates (like you!)

PhD Study in Ireland - Key Details
Universities 13
Nobel Prizes 11
Oldest University Trinity College Dublin (1592)
International Students 22,283
PhD Length 3-4 years
Representative Fees €3,000-30,000 per year
Academic Year September to August

Coronavirus updates for international students at Irish universities

For the latest information on the impact of coronavirus on studying a PhD in Ireland, please read the official Education in Ireland COVID-19 guidance page. Here you can find updates regarding the phased reopening of campuses, residence permits and more.

PhD life in Ireland

Want to know more about what it's like to live and study abroad in Ireland during a PhD? Our detailed guide covers everything from accommodation and living costs to culture and entertainment.


Northern Ireland History

Beginning in the 19th century, the people of Ireland wanted to gain self-rule from Britain. The Irish Nationalist Party held power in the House of Commons but wanted to gain Home Rule for autonomy in internal affairs. The Parliament Act of 1911 put Ireland on the path to Home Rule.

There were people that were opposed to the idea. Irish unionists were against Home Rule. In 1912, an additional Home Run bill was introduced. However, there was some sympathy for the unionists. In 1914, four Ulster countries voted themselves out of provisions for a period of six years.

When World War I began, Ireland was becoming more divided. The general election of 1918 further divided the people and guerilla warfare led to the Anglo-Irish war. In 1920, the fourth Home Rule bill was introduced, splitting Ireland into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. Unionists continued to oppose this plan, seeing it as a betrayal. In 1922, the Irish Free State Constitution Act was passed.

In the years that followed, Ireland had seen its ups and downs. This includes boycotts, violence, and political discourse. Northern Ireland went through a period known as the troubles, which resulted in many deaths. However, an agreement in 1998 kicked off progress toward a more peaceful region. Today, Northern Ireland is very industrialized, and its economy has been on the upswing since the late 1990s, and unemployment has decreased significantly since the 1980s.


Watch the video: SPBTRIP Bray part II DublinIreland in 092008 (August 2022).