When did French become the official language of France?

When did French become the official language of France?

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While French did exist in France and differed depending on areas, it was not the official language. When did it become so ?

In 1539, the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts established (among many other things: 192 articles) that all legal and notarised documents were to be written exclusively in French (articles 110 and 111).

Here are the articles in both French (as written at that time, Middle French):

Nous voullons et ordonnons qu'ilz soient faictz et escrits si clerement qu'il n'y ait ne puisse avoir aucune ambiguïté ou incertitude, ni lieu à en demander interpretacion.

Et pour ce que telles choses sont souventesfoys advenues sur l'intelligence des motz latins contenuz esdictz arretz, Nous voulons que doresenavant tous arretz ensemble toutes autres procedeures, soyent de nous cours souveraines ou aultres subalternes et inferieures, soyent de registres, enquestes, contractz, commissions, sentences, testamens et aultres quelzconques actes et exploictz de justice ou qui en dependent, soient prononcez, enregistrez et delivrez aux parties en langage maternel francoys et non autrement.

And English:

We wish and order that they [judicial acts] be drawn up and written so clearly that there be neither ambiguity nor uncertainty nor the possibility of ambiguity or uncertainty, nor grounds for asking for interpretation thereof.

And because so many things often happen due to [poor] understanding of Latin words used in decrees, we intend that henceforth all decrees and other proceedings, whether of our sovereign courts or others, subordinate and inferior, or whether in records, surveys, contracts, commissions, awards, wills, and all other acts and deeds of justice or of law, that all such acts are spoken, written, and given to the parties [concerned] in the French mother tongue, and not otherwise.

Distinct Languages & Dialects in France

Basque, or Euskara, is a language spoken by about a million people in northern Spain and southwestern France. Although attempts have been made to link it to ancient Iberian, the Hamito-Semitic group, and Caucasian, its origins remain uncertain.

The sound pattern resembles that of Spanish, with its five pure vowels and such peculiarities as a trilled r and palatal n and l. In spite of this, and the presence of numerous Latinate loanwords, Basque has maintained its distinctiveness throughout two millennia of external contacts. For example, it still places a unique emphasis on suffixes to denote case and number and to form new words.

Basque is the only language remaining of those spoken in southwestern Europe before the Roman conquest. Since the 10th century, it has gradually been supplanted by Castilian Spanish, and under the Franco regime its use in Spain was outlawed altogether. The ethnic insularity of the Basques, however, has fostered revivals. Attempts are now being made to standardize the orthography.

Source: The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Release #8, ©1996
Bibliography: Russell, H., et al., Basque Essay (1974) Tovar, Antonio, The Basque Language (1957) Vallie, F., Literature of the Basques (1974).

The French language

A “Romance" language, modern French is derived from Latin (as are Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and some other Mediterranean languages). Medieval French was one of the main historic roots of modern English, notably in terms of vocabulary.
Like all languages, French has evolved considerably in the course of time the oldest known document written in a form of French, rather than late Latin, is the “Serments de Strasbourg", written in the year 842. In Medieval times, different forms of French flourished as the language of literature in both France and England: famous works from the time include the “Chansons de geste" (Songs of chivalry), notably the epic “Chanson de Roland", the Roman de la Rose (the Romance of the Rose), and the Arthurian legends (many written in French in England). By the time of the Renaissance, French had evolved to a point where writers such as Rabelais and Ronsard were writing in a language that is still quite comprehensible to a modern day educated reader as for the great writers of seventeenth century France, Molière, Corneille and Racine , they remain quite understandable to this day.
Yet in recent centuries, change has been slower than with English, on account of the French Academy, the Académie Française , one of whose remits is to act as guardian of the French language. The Academy has frequently resisted changes to the French language, insisting that existing and traditional forms of the language were, by virtue of their existence, “correct French".

Franglais, and the influence of English

Nevertheless, though both the Academy and the French government have attempted on numerous occasions to preserve the perceived “purity" of French, modern French has been heavily influenced by English – or rather, by American – and thousands of English words have been brought into French by journalists, scientists, travellers, musicians, showbiz personalities, films, and street culture. Television chat-show hosts and their guests, businessmen and stars of all sorts pepper their French with words of English origin, which at first are quite incomprehensible to ordinary French speakers. This type of talk is known as “Franglais" . One recent example, heard in a business context, is “ une to-do liste " , which appears to have entered the French language in around 2007. Words like “ le shopping " or “ un parking" or “ le hard discount " are now so well established in modern French that many French speakers do not even realise that they are borrowed from English.
Anti “Franglais" measures have had a few successes or half successes. After “ un pipeline" entered the French language in the 1960s, the Academy banished the word, decreeing that the French word for an oil pipeline was “ un oléoduc ": and that is the word now used. But attempts to banish “email" have met with less success, and the purist’s alternative, “ un courriel " has only managed to establish itself as an acceptable alternative to “email" , used notably in official communications.
Among the reasons that have helped English make inroads into many languages is the ease with which English forms new words or adapts existing words to create new ones. Although French is a "synthetic" language (i.e. a language that makes great use of inflections - prefixes and grammatical endings ) it does not adapt words to create new meanings with the ease that English does. Just look at the complexity of the expression required to render the English word "anticlockwise" in French. dans le sens inverse des aiguilles d'une montre . Surprisingly perhaps, the English word in this particular case has not entered the French language in spite of its relative simplicity. This is no doubt because it is not everyday vocabulary, nor an erudite technical term.

Regional variations of French

Modern standard French is derived from the variety of French spoken in the area around Paris and the Loire valley area. It is the most important variety of the “northern" group of French dialects, known as the “ langues d’oil " but it is not the only form of French.
In the south of France, particularly in rural areas, there are still people who speak forms of Occitanian French, the “ langues d’oc " these include Provençal, Occitan, and Catalan. Strongly discouraged by central governments for over a century, and considered as “patois" these regional languages were fast disappearing until the nineteen-seventies, when the first significant attempts were made to revive them. Since then, there has been a major increase in awareness of regional languages and cultures in France, illustrated here and there today by road signs and street signs in two languages, and even occasional articles in regional languages in regional newspapers. The status of regional languages, as part of France's cultural heritage, is now enshrined in the French constitution.
However, while people in the Langue d’oc areas of France speak with accents that are distinct from the accents of northerners, and may understand local patois or dialects, only a minority can actually speak or write in non-standard versions of French.
French is also, of course, spoken in countries other than France. It is one of the languages spoken in Switzerland , Belgium , Canada , and a number of other countries. Swiss French and Belgian French are virtually identical to standard French just a few differences existe. In Belgium and Switzerland, people say septante instead of soixante-dix for 70, and nonante instead of quatre-vingt-dix for 90. Some Belgians also say octante for 80, and the Swiss say huitante for 80.
In Canada, Quebec French has kept up several words and expressions that have fallen out of use in modern France some notable examples are un breuvage instead of une boisson (a drink), or une fournaise instead of une chaudière (stove, boiler).
Not all differences are due to historic factors. An amusing example of the difference between French and Québecois is the way to say "we parked in a car-park". In France this would be " Nous avons stationné dans un parking ", while in Quebec it would be " Nous avons parqué dans un stationnement ".

French Grammar and syntax:

► Click here for the online French grammar

Linguists describe French as a moderately inflected or “synthetic" language, meaning one in which the grammatical function of words (notably verbs) is often indicated by suffixes and other markers.
While French has not kept the complex noun declensions of Latin, with its six cases (Nominative, accusative, dative, etc.), it has maintained a verb system characterised by inflected forms verbs may have up to six different forms for a given tense, and for example the endings of many verbs in the present simple tense are -e, -es, -e, -ons, -ez, -ent (from first person singular to third person plural).
For this reason, French is a language where grammar (syntax), punctuation (or inflexion of the voice) and the form of words (morphology) are key factors in determining meaning compare this to English, a more “analytic" language, where word-order and the use of link-words play a greater role in determining meaning.
For example: in French
Tu as vu la fille que j’ai rencontrée ?
is clearly defined as a question in written language by the presence of the quesiton mark, and in spoken language by an interrogative inflexion of the voice.
To ask the same question in English, it is necessary to use an interrogative verb form:
Did you see the girl I met ?
If an English writer forgets the question mark at the end, his sentence is still clearly a question, on account of the word order. But if a French writer forgets the question mark, the sentence reverts to being a statement.
Another example: in French,
“Commençons" – a single word –
has the meaning conveyed by three words in English: “ Let’s (let us) begin ".

As it is important for conveying unambiguous meaning in French, basic grammar is something that needs to be mastered by anyone wanting to communicate effectively in this language. Thus, although teachers in France often lament the falling standards of grammar among their pupils, the teaching of French grammar has remained an essential part of the school curriculum, from primary school upwards.


The Republic of Guinea lies on the western coast of Africa. With an area of 94,900 square miles, it is bordered by Senegal and Mali on the north, Côte d'Ivoire on the east, and Liberia and Sierra Leone on the south. The population of 7,600,000 people (January 2001 estimate) is composed of four major tribal groups: 35 percent Peuls (Fulani), 30 percent Malinke, 20 percent Susu, and 14 percent Kissi. French is the official language, but several tribal languages and dialects are also in use. Guinea is 85 percent Muslim, 8 percent Christian, and 7 percent Animist. With a per capita Gross Domestic Product of $1,180 (in 2000), it is one of the poorest nations of Western Africa.

For more than 100 years, Guinea was part of the former French Colonial Empire. It became a protectorate in 1849, a colony in 1898, and a constituent territory of French West Africa in 1904. When France granted independence to its former African colonies in 1958, it also offered a continuing economic, political, and educational relationship with the newly created Communauté, the French equivalent of the British Commonwealth. Guinea was the only former colony that refused such a partnership. After a nationwide referendum, it severed all ties with France and proclaimed its independence as the republic of Guinea on 2 October 1958. Its first president-for-life, Achmed Sékou-Touré, established a single party state, where neither political diversity nor any form of opposition were tolerated. To disengage the country from its former colonial past, Sékou-Touré adopted a radical africanization program that rejected Western values. Guinea soon became an isolated, struggling nation that turned to the former Soviet Union for technical aid. In a sense, the history of the educational system of Guinea is closely tied to its political history and efforts to separate itself from its former colonial occupant. But even after 1960, France still loomed large over the economy and cultural life of its former West African colonies. Efforts to abolish French as the official language of instruction to the benefit of local dialects proved to be a failure, as French remained throughout West Africa the language of diplomacy, commerce, and education. Severing ties with Western Europe also had a catastrophic impact on Guinea's economy, and the promotion of a brutally repressive regime controlled by Sékou-Touré did little to foster a climate in which new educational policies and reforms could flourish. Sékou-Touré died in 1984 after 26 years of unopposed dictatorship, having finally restored closer ties with France in 1975. Colonel (later general) Lansana Conté then seized power and has been Guinea's unopposed leader for the past 17 years. The political climate has improved since diplomatic and economic ties were restored with France and Western Europe. Opposition parties were permitted, and free elections were held in the early 1990s. A 114-member National Assembly was democratically installed in June 1995, representing 21 political parties. Though the nation is still poor, Guinea's economy has shown dramatic improvement after French corporations undertook the rehabilitation of the country's infrastructure, and the Paris Club of Creditor Nations agreed to significant debt relief in the late 1990s.

The History Of The French Language: From The Roman Empire Until Today

Wondering how the French language came to be? From its humble origins to its official recognition in 1539, there are several major milestones in the evolution of this Romance language. Here are some of the most notable milestones in the history of the French language:

Roman Gaul

To understand how French came to be, we have to go back two millennia to the age of the Roman Empire. When the Gallic War ended (between 58 BCE and 51 BCE), territories located south of the Rhine became Roman provinces. This change led to the emergence of population centers and increased trade, which improved communication between the Gauls and the Romans. For five centuries, oral Latin, also called Vulgar (from vulgus, meaning “the people”) , coexisted with Gaulish, a language of Celtic origin.

However, as Gaulish was not predominantly used for writing, its survival was threatened in the more Romanized areas in the south. Eventually, Vulgar supplanted Gaulish as the primary language of the region. Currently, of the 100,000 entries in the Le Grand Robert French dictionary, about 100 words are of Gaulish origin. Most of them refer to land-related objects and animals, for example: char (cart), bruyère (heather), chêne (oak), if (yew), chemin (path), caillou (stone), ruche (hive), mouton (lamb) and tonneau (barrel).

The Ancestor Of The Franks

By the 4th century, several Franks (tribes of Germanic origin) had already settled in the northeast of Gaul and were integrated into the Roman army. Even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks remained in what is now modern-day France. People of this proto-French culture were first unified by King Clovis via military victories and the support of the great Gallo-Roman families. This political support was largely attained by adopting their language, Gallo-Roman, as well as their religion, Catholicism.

Due to the Germanic origin of the Franks, the pronunciation and musicality of the language were modified . New sounds, like the [œ] in fl eu r (flower) and [ø] in n œ uds (knot), and new words were also introduced. However, the Franks’ most important contribution was providing the name of what was one day to become France.

Political Birth

At the end of the 8th century, the Dark Ages spurred an educational decline for the majority of the population — meaning that most people could no longer understand the Latin that clerics spoke. After the Council of Tours in 813, King Charlemagne required that priests give sermons either in the “Roman rustic language” or Theotiscam (a Germanic language) so the common people could understand. This decision marked the first recognition of French (or what would become French) as an oral language. The true birth of the French language, however, took place three decades later.

Charlemagne’s empire was divided after his death and tensions rose between his grandchildren Lothair I, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German, which ultimately culminated in war. In 842, Charles and Louis took an oath to support one another against Lothair, and they each adopted a language understood by their brother’s troops: Charles spoke in Old High German and Louis in Gallo-Roman (proto-French). The Oaths of Strasbourg, transcribed into both of these languages and into Latin, arguably marked the birth of both German and French. While this version of Proto-French was still quite similar to Vulgar Latin, this marks the first point where it had an acknowledged written form.

The Frankish Inheritance

In the 10th century, the Gallo-Romance language took on hundreds of forms and dialects. Under the influence of the Franks, a group of languages emerged in the North: the so-called languages of Oïl, while in the more Romanized South , there was the birth of the languages of Oc (Oïl and Oc both mean oui ) . The languages of Oïl include the Picard, Walloon, Burgundy and Frankish dialects, among others. The Oc languages, on the other hand, include the Limousin, Auvergne, Provencal, and Languedocian dialects. This fragmentation meant that the people started speaking many different variations, which became very important later.

Old French (10th–13th Centuries)

Latin continued to be the prevailing language in religion, education and law, but little by little the vernacular language also started being used for written communication. At the end of the 11th century, the troubadours started chanting their poems in the various dialects of the country. In fact, the Song of Roland, written in the Oïl language, is one of the most emblematic examples of literature of this time.

It probably goes without saying that this Old French, like other vernaculars of its day, had a lack of clear rules and therefore had considerable variety in writing and speech. Because of this, some individuals advocated the “re-Latinization” of the lexicon. In the 12th century, French was still divided between Oïl and Oc, but eventually, the royal power from the Île-de-France region spread the Oïl variant across France. Oïl became an instrument of power and a symbol of unification.

Middle French (14th-17th Centuries)

In the 14th and 15th centuries, France witnessed its darkest years: The Black Plague and the Hundred Years’ War devastated the population. The texts of François Villon, written in Middle French, reflect this turbulent period perfectly. For the modern reader, the terminology he employed is somewhat understandable to those who speak Standard French. This is thanks to the loss of both declensions, changing of word order, and other foundational changes to the language. Nowadays, some of his spellings can seem funny (e.g. doncques, pluye and oyseaulx ), but they were very fashionable at the time. The letter Y was in vogue, while K and W — then considered “not Latin enough” — were eliminated.

The history of the French language took another turn in the 15th century with the start of the Renaissance, as well as the invention of the printing press. In order to disseminate a large number of written works, it was necessary to create rules and structures for the language. It was in this context that the vernacular language finally achieved recognition: t he Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts in 1539 established the primacy of French for written laws.


In order to render legitimacy and distinction to the French language, it was “re-Latinized” during the Enlightenment — although sometimes this was done in the wrong way. The word doit became doigt (finger) from the Latin digitus , while pie became pied (foot) from the Latin pedis. Meanwhile, words that were considered “barbaric” — that is, not of Latin origin — were systematically taken out.

As A Lingua Franca

It may come as a shock to Francophiles and students of history that, at the time of the French Revolution, less than half of France’s population could speak French, and only a fraction of those speakers could do it conversationally. That said, French was an extremely popular language with the elite and higher classes, as it was adopted by nearly all European courts and it even reached the other side of the Atlantic. Powered by the influence it had in the political and literary spheres, French became the world’s lingua franca (until English eventually supplanted it). Even today, French is still one of the most spoken languages in the world and continues to enjoy considerable appeal.

Ultimately, the history of French is full of paradoxes: It has had a near-constant struggle to eliminate its own “barbarism,” even if that’s something which is inevitably part of its identity. The study of the language reveals a larger history of France, torn between its ambition to unify and the reality of its diversity.

For centuries, political delegates from around the world learned to speak French — the language of diplomacy and international relations.

But what does that mean? How did one of the Romance languages become the international language of law?

The Beginnings of the Language of Diplomacy

The French language was beginning to come into its own by the 13th century, becoming more widely spoken throughout Europe. It was considered sophisticated and associated with high society, and many people chose to learn it to obtain greater wealth and higher social status.

By the middle of the 14th century, French became the most spoken language in Europe, already being used for diplomatic affairs between several countries.

The Hundred Years’ War, which ended in 1453, had an effect on both French and English nationalism. Despite an effort by English officials to ban French, the language continued to thrive as the language of diplomacy throughout Europe.

The Worldwide Language of Diplomacy

The Villers-Cotterêts Ordinance, passed in 1539, decreed that all French administrative documents must be in the French language. This ordinance made French an official language — a turning point for the country.

As France became a world leader throughout the next few centuries, people throughout the world began to learn French. French was becoming a lingua franca — a language that goes beyond the boundaries of its community of speakers and becomes a language for communication between groups not sharing a common tongue.

By the 17th century, French was known as the language of diplomacy and international relations throughout the world.

The Rise of English

The growing popularity of the English language in recent times means that French may no longer have the “language of diplomacy” designation that it used to.

Political officials and French nationalists have fought to keep French as the international language of diplomacy, but many argue that English has taken over that role.

Despite the popularity of English, the French language still continues to play an integral part in international relations. Institutions like the United Nations still use French regularly, and the French language is the official language of many countries and still appears on passports throughout the world.

Though French may not technically be the language of diplomacy any longer, the effects of its wide use over several centuries are still seen in many places today.

Did it surprise to learn about the history of French and diplomacy? Do you think it should still be the language of choice when dealing with diplomatic matters? Tell us in the comments below.

Did French kissing start in France?

Human beings indulge in a range of affectionate behaviors, including hugging, kissing, handshakes and high-fives. But one of the most curious of couplings is the so-called "French kiss," where the tongues of two people make contact, presumably for the purpose of sexual stimulation. French kissing is a well-established expression of love across many of the world's cultures, but the first person to try it must have been quite brave. Who was this person?

References to open-mouth kissing appear in a number of ancient texts, with the earliest mention appearing in Sanskrit works around 1500 B.C.E. [source: Kirshenbaum, The Daily Beast]. In the famous Kama Sutra text from the third century C.E., the places on the body designated for kissing include lips and the interior of the mouth, suggesting that tongue kissing was being practiced in India by that time [source: The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana].

One hypothesis for the evolution of tongue kissing is that it occurred as a natural consequence of feeding offspring in mammal populations [source: Lorenzi]. However, this doesn't explain why the practice was adopted in some human societies, but not others. There are multiple instances across the globe of human communities that had never heard of tongue kissing before contact with Europeans — and were disgusted by the very suggestion of it [source: Foer].

For the widespread practice of kissing in Europe, we can thank the Romans, who described kissing in three forms: the osculum (a friendly peck on the cheek), the basium (a more erotic kiss on the lips) and the savium (the most passionate of kisses on the mouth) [source: Lorenzi]. In Roman society, when, where and how you kissed someone was an important indicator of social status.

The term "French kiss" was likely coined by American and British servicemen in France during World War I who noticed that Gallic women were more open to employing the erotic technique than their American counterparts [source: Kirshenbaum]. So, while the French were clearly not the first people to engage in French kissing, it seems fair that they are given credit for it due to the amorous enthusiasms of French lovers a century ago.

Interestingly, the French had no specific word for its famous export until very recently. The verb galocher, defined as "kissing with tongues," was added to the French dictionary Le Petit Robert in 2014 [source: Neuman]. Appearing in this popular yet unofficial dictionary doesn't give any mere collection of letters the credentials of a proper French word, however there is no mention of galocher in the Academie Francaise, the 378-year-old regulator of the French language [source: Dewey].

These days, French kissing is so popular that a team of Japanese researchers recently invented a French kissing machine, in which couples that are separated are able to connect via straw-like devices that work through a computer [source: Yin]. That's some impressive dedication to a long-distance relationship.

Based on these facts, it's clear that French kissing did not begin in France. However, it's equally clear that we have the open hearts (and mouths) of French lovers at the start of the 20th century to thank for the term. Merci beaucoup!

Regional Languages of France

Over 25 regional languages are spoken throughout Metropolitan France and some of these are spoken in neighboring countries such as Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and Belgium. The regional languages of France are divided into 5 language family subgroups: Vasconic, Italo-Dalmatian, Gallo-Romance, Germanic, and Celtic. The Gallo-Romance language subgroup is further divided into the largest number of regional languages and has the largest number of speakers.

The most widely spoken regional language in France is Occitan, a Gallo-Romance language, which can be heard throughout the southern region of the country. Linguists believe this language originated in the 10th century, when it was used to write poetry. Nearly 1,000 years later, in the late 19th century, a poet attempted to revive the language by standardizing its written form.

Today, Occitan is spoken by approximately 610,000 individuals and consists of 7 dialects: Gascon, Limousin, Nissart, Languedocien, Provençal, Auvergnat, and Vivaroalpenc. Most speakers of these languages belong to older generations and speak French as a first language, which means the Occitan dialects are in danger of becoming extinct.

How the French Promote and Protect Their Language

Though there are a number of minority languages, there is just one official language in France – the French language or Français to native speakers. The French people are known to be very vigilant in protecting their language. Recently, efforts to safeguard Français in France have been renewed due to the threat of Anglicization.

English invaders

A bill has been introduced which seeks to allow English usage in some university courses in France. The French Higher Education Minister Geneviève Fioraso recommended an amendment to the Toubon Law of 1994 to allow universities in France to teach courses in English in order to attract foreign students. This campaign to use English in universities on a limited scale has triggered the natural instinct of the French to protect their mother tongue.

Measures intended for language promotion

Publication by individual persons is not regulated by the government of France. But it is required by law that French be used as the primary language in the workplace and in commerce. It is also mandated by law that French be spoken within the borders of the country. But the French government did not stop there in terms of language promotion. They have also made inroads in promoting the French language throughout Europe, in the European Union, and the rest of the world as well. Several French language institutions with government support are scattered in the inhabited continents across the planet.

Language protection initiatives

The French resistance to English language invasion could be explained by the fact that Français is at the very heart of the identity of the French. Many observers agree that this bond is much stronger among the French than in any other nation.

In 1635 the French created the Académie Française which functions as the official custodian of the French language. The institution was formed at that time to protect the French language from Italian influences. Today, there is a new invader – the English language and emotions are running high. The Académie Française referred to the proposal by the Minister of Higher Education as “linguistic treason.” Top linguists were very quick to argue that the identity of France is at stake and that the risk of French becoming a dead language is all too real with the increasing propensity for utilizing “English borrowings.”

Guarding against English expressions

The French are consciously guarding against English invasion from within. Thus, the authorities make sure that popular English terms have an equivalent in the vernacular. To avoid adoption of expressions from America that easily cross the Atlantic, the guardians of the language ensure that translations are provided.

However, with the digital revolution, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the guardians and protectors of the French language to respond to the increasing popularity of American expressions in pop culture. Anglicisms are just moving too fast for French to keep up. For instance, young people find it easier to say they are sending an “e-mail” rather than a “courriel.” English is the language of digital technology and the wave that is sweeping across the world is arriving in France without delay especially given the expansive connectivity provided by the Internet.

This table presents a few of the French equivalents prepared by the Académie and included in a volume called, “Dire, Ne pas dire” (To say, Not to Say”) with a special section on Anglicisms. Here are some of the “unwanted” words from English that is seeping into France’s daily activities:

Language Days at the UN

The Department of Global Communications has established language days for each of the UN's six official languages. The purpose of the UN's language days is to celebrate multilingualism and cultural diversity as well as to promote equal use of all six official languages throughout the Organization. Under the initiative, UN duty stations around the world celebrate six separate days, each dedicated to one of the Organization's six official languages. Language Days at the UN aim to entertain as well as inform, with the goal of increasing awareness and respect for the history, culture and achievements of each of the six working languages among the UN community. The days are as follows:


  1. Zolotaur

    The lost effort.

  2. Davidson

    It agrees, is the admirable answer

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