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The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759, Nicholas Tracy

The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759, Nicholas Tracy



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The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759, Nicholas Tracy

The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759, Nicholas Tracy

Hawke and the Defeat of the French Invasion

2009 was the 250th anniversary of the Battle of Quiberon Bay, a major British naval victory won in a storm, in the dark and inside a difficult bay on the French coast. Unlike the far more famous battle of Trafalgar, Quiberon Bay directly prevented a French invasion of Britain, and played a major part in deciding the outcome of the Seven Years War.

The main focus of this book is on the background to the battle - the war itself, naval power in the period, mercantile warfare, the blockade of Brest, Admiral Hawke and the aftermath of the battle - both its immediate impact on the French and the end of the war and the later career of Hawke and his captains.

Although the battle is at the centre of the book Tracy focuses more on putting events in focus than on the details of the fighting itself. The chapter on the actual battle is 25 pages long, and given the relatively simple course of events once the fighting began that feels about right.

Quiberon Bay wasn't a crushing victory on the scale of Nelson's famous victories at the Nile or Trafalgar, so Tracy is right to look for its significance elsewhere - including the defeat of a real threat of French invasion and the impressive demonstration of British seamanship.

Chapters
1 - Context
2 - Britain's Naval Strategy
3 - Admiral Sir Edward Hawke
4 - Hawke in Command
5 - The Watch on Brest
6 - The Battle of Quiberon Bay
7 - Victory
8 - An Armed Peace and an Empire Lost
Appendix 1 - From the Captain's Log of Swiftsure
Appendix 2 - Neptune's Resignation (poem)

Author: Nicholas Tracy
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 2010
Publisher: Pen & Sword Marine
Year: 2010



The Battle of Quiberon Bay, 1759: Hawke and the Defeat of the French Invasion

In the mid-18th century, with virtually no regular troops at home, Britain was especially vulnerable to the imminent threat of French invasion. In a cunning naval offensive, the British fleet under Admiral Edward Hawke intercepted French ships on their way to rendezvous with invasion troopships gathered at the mouth of the Loire. Unfairly overlook in history books, the Battle of Quiberon Bay not only spoiled the planned French invasion, but also established British naval dominance.

Once under attack, the French changed course for Quiberon Bay, assuming the British would not follow them among its treacherous shoals in stormy weather. Yet Hawke pursued them under full sail. The French ships were destroyed, captured, run aground or scattered—while the British only suffered two ships run aground. In this insightful narrative, Nicholas Tracy studies the battle, its strategic consequences, and its effect on the war for North America.

Editorial: Pen & Sword Maritime
Publicado: 2020-01-24
ISBN: 9781844681662


The Battle of Quiberon Bay, 1759: Admiral Hawke and the Defeat of the French Invasion

Revered naval theorist, Alfred Thayer Mahan, thought the Battle of Quiberon Bay (20 Nov 1759) was as significant as Nelson's victory in 1805, calling it 'the Trafalgar of this war [the Seven Years War]'. Arguably it was even more vital. Britain in 1759 was much less well-defended, with virtually no regular troops at home, and the threat of French invasion was both more realistic and more imminent.

When the British fleet under Admiral Hawke fell upon them, the French ships of the line under Admiral Conflans were actually on their way to rendezvous with the invasion troopships gathered at the mouth of the Loire. Yet the battle and the admiral remain relatively obscure - there is no Quiberon Square or Hawke's column. The battle itself was fought in terrible weather, the French attempting to exploit their local knowledge by heading for Quiberon Bay, assuming the British would not follow them among its treacherous shoals in such conditions. Hawke, however, pursued them under full sail and the French ships were destroyed, captured, run aground or scattered for the loss of only two British ships which ran aground. The invasion was thwarted. Professor Nicholas Tracy studies the battle and its strategic consequences, particularly upon the war for North America.


Battle [ edit | edit source ]

Having struggled with unfavourable winds, Conflans had slowed down on the night of the 19th in order to arrive at Quiberon at dawn. 20 miles off Belleisle he sighted seven of Duff's squadron. Β] Once he realised that this was not the main British fleet, he gave chase. Duff split his ships to the north and south, with the French van and centre in pursuit, whilst the rearguard held off to windward to watch some strange sails appearing from the west. Γ] The French broke off the pursuit but were still scattered as Hawke's fleet came into sight. Γ] HMS Magnanime sighted the French at 8.30 Β] and Hawke gave the signal for line abreast. Γ]

Tracks of English and French fleets

Conflans was faced with a choice, to fight in his current disadvantageous position in high seas and a "very violent" WNW wind, or take up a defensive position in Quiberon Bay and dare Hawke to come into the labyrinth of shoals and reefs. Δ] About 9am Hawke gave the signal for general chase, along with a new signal for the first 7 ships to form a line ahead and, in spite of the weather and the dangerous waters, set full sail. Ε] By 2.30 Conflans rounded Les Cardinaux, the rocks at the end of the Quiberon peninsula that give the battle its name in French. The first shots were heard as he did so, although Sir John Bentley in Warspite claimed that they were fired without his orders. Ζ] However the British were starting to overtake the rear of the French fleet even as their van and centre made it to the safety of the bay.

Just before 4pm the battered Formidable surrendered to the Resolution, just as Hawke himself rounded The Cardinals. Η] Meanwhile Thésée lost her duel with HMS Torbay and foundered, Superbe capsized, and the badly damaged Héros struck her flag to Viscount Howe Η] before running aground on the Four Shoal during the night.

Meanwhile the wind shifted to the NW, further confusing Conflans' half-formed line as they tangled together in the face of Hawke's daring pursuit. Conflans tried unsuccessfully to resolve the muddle, but in the end decided to put to sea again. His flagship, Soleil Royal, headed for the entrance to the bay just as Hawke was coming in on Royal George. Hawke saw an opportunity to rake Soleil Royal, but Intrépide interposed herself and took the fire. ⎖] Meanwhile Soleil Royal had fallen to leeward and was forced to run back and anchor off Croisic, away from the rest of the French fleet. By now it was about 5pm and darkness had fallen, so Hawke made the signal to anchor. ⎖]

During the night eight French ships managed to do what Soleil Royal had failed to do, to navigate through the shoals to the safety of the open sea, and escape to Rochefort. ⎗] Seven ships and the frigates were in the Villaine estuary (just off the map above, to the east), but Hawke dared not attack them in the stormy weather. ⎗] The French jettisoned their guns and gear and used the rising tide and northwesterly wind to escape over the sandbar at the bottom of the Villaine river. ⎗] One of these ships was wrecked, and the remaining six were trapped throughout 1760 by a blockading British squadron and only later managed to break out and reach Brest in 1761/1762. ⎘] The badly damaged Juste was lost as she made for the Loire, 150 of her crew surviving the ordeal, ⎙] and Resolution grounded on the Four Shoal during the night.

Battle of Quiberon Bay: the Day After
(Richard Wright 1760)

Soleil Royal tried to escape to the safety of the batteries at Croisic, but Essex pursued her with the result that both were wrecked on the Four Shoal beside Heros. ⎗] On the 22nd the gale moderated, and three of Duff's ships were sent to destroy the beached ships. Conflans set fire to Soleil Royal while the British burnt Heros, ⎗] as seen in the right of Richard Wright's painting. Hawke tried to attack the ships in the Villaine with fireboats, but to no effect. ⎖]


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The author recognises this battle as a key pivot point in British history, ensuring the threatened French invasion was rendered impracticable through the resounding defeat of the French fleet. The foundations of the British empire were also ensured through the victories in French Canada and India - absent their fleet, the French were unable to protect and retain their overseas colonies and possessions. As a key pivot, the author examines the decades and events leading up to this battle, and the consequences which likewise reverberated through the following decades.

The author provides great detail on the battle and the related political events in Britain, France, Spain and Prussia. Admiral Hawke comes out of this as a daring and truly great man, who sadly has not received his rightful place in history, owing in large part to his humility and disregard for currying political favours and influence.

A very informative and well-written book - the only downside is that the many maps are not very effective or easy to follow in the Kindle version.


The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759, Nicholas Tracy - History

Revered naval theorist, Alfred Thayer Mahan, thought the Battle of Quiberon Bay (20 Nov 1759) was as significant as Nelson's victory in 1805, calling it 'the Trafalgar of this war [the Seven Years War]'. Arguably it was even more vital. Britain in 1759 was much less well-defended, with virtually no regular troops at home, and the threat of French invasion was both more realistic and more imminent.

When the British fleet under Admiral Hawke fell upon them, the French ships of the line under Admiral Conflans were actually on their way to rendezvous with the invasion troopships gathered at the mouth of the Loire. Yet the battle and the admiral remain relatively obscure - there is no Quiberon Square or Hawke's column. The battle itself was fought in terrible weather, the French attempting to exploit their local knowledge by heading for Quiberon Bay, assuming the British would not follow them among its treacherous shoals in such conditions. Hawke, however, pursued them under full sail and the French ships were destroyed, captured, run aground or scattered for the loss of only two British ships which ran aground. The invasion was thwarted. Professor Nicholas Tracy studies the battle and its strategic consequences, particularly upon the war for North America.

About The Author

Dr Nicholas Tracy is a member of the History Department of the University of New Brunswick, and an associate of the Gregg Centre for the Study of War and Society. He has written extensively on naval strategy, tactics in the age of sail, art history, and biography, and is now engaged in a study of Canada's use of naval forces following the end of the Cold War. He is an experienced yachtsman and brings his understanding of the sea to bear on his descriptions of naval warfare.

Though "Nelson's Battles" is his first book to appear in the Seaforth Publishing imprint, Tracy has worked for many years with the Seaforth team.

REVIEWS

&ldquo&hellip(those) who enjoy traditional naval history will appreciate the depth of Tracy&rsquos knowledge of naval strategies and tactics&hellipexpertly contextualizes the battle&hellip&rdquo

- Nautical Research Journal

&ldquo&hellipa number of maps and illustrations&hellipfirmly grounded&hellipdefinitive study&hellip&rdquo

- International Journal of Maritime History

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
Royal George 100 Captain John Campbell 880 Flagship of Sir Edward Hawke
Union 90 Captain John Evans 770 Flagship of Sir Charles Hardy
Duke 80 Samuel Graves 800
Namur 90 Matthew Buckle 780
Mars 74 Commodore James Young 600
Warspite 74 Sir John Bentley 600
Hercules 74 William Fortescue 600
Torbay 74 Augustus Keppel 600
Magnanime 74 Viscount Howe 600
Resolution 74 Henry Speke 600 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Hero 74 George Edgcumbe 600
Swiftsure 70 Sir Thomas Stanhope 520
Dorsetshire 70 Peter Denis 520
Burford 70 James Gambier 520
Chichester 70 William Saltren Willet 520
Temple 70 Washington Shirley 520
Essex 64 Lucius O'Brien 480 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Revenge 64 John Storr 480
Montague 60 Joshua Rowley 400
Kingston 60 Thomas Shirley 400
Intrepid 60 Jervis Maplesden 400
Dunkirk 60 Robert Digby 420
Defiance 60 Patrick Baird 420
Rochester 50 Robert Duff 350
HMS Portland 50 Mariot Arbuthnot 350
HMS Falkland 50 Francis Samuel Drake 350
Chatham 50 John Lockhart 350
Venus 36 Thomas Harrison 240
Minerva 32 Alexander Hood 220
Sapphire 32 John Strachan 220
Vengeance 28 Gamaliel Nightingale 200
Coventry 28 Francis Burslem 200
Maidstone 28 Dudley Digges 200

Britain

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
First Division
Soleil Royal 80 Capt. B. de Chasac 950 Flagship of Marquis de Conflans – Aground and burnt
Orient 80 Capt. N. de la Filière 750 Flagship of Chevalier de Guébridant Budes – Escaped to Rochefort
Glorieux 74 Villars de la Brosse 650 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until April, 1762 [12]
Robuste 74 Fragnier de Vienne 650 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until 1761, returned to Brest in January, 1762 [12]
Dauphin Royal 70 Chevalier d'Uturbie Fragosse 630 Escaped to Rochefort
Dragon 64 Vassor de la Touche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until January, 1761 [12]
Solitaire 64 Vicomte de Langle 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Second Division
Tonnant 80 Capt. St Victoret 800 Flagship of Chevalier de Beauffremont – Escaped to Rochefort
Intrépide 74 Chastologer 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Thésée 74 Kersaint de Coetnempren 650 Foundered
Superbe 70 Montalais 630 Sunk by Royal George
Northumberland 64 Belingant de Kerbabut 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Eveillé 64 Prévalais de la Roche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until 1761, returned to Brest in January, 1762 [12]
Brillant 64 Keremar Boischateau 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until January, 1761 [12]
Third Division
Formidable 80 Capt. St André 800 Flagship of De Saint André du Vergé – Taken by Resolution
Magnifique 74 Bigot de Morogues 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Héros 74 Vicomte de Sanzay 650 Surrendered, but ran aground next day during heavy weather, burnt
Juste 70 François de Saint Aloüarn 630 Wrecked in the Loire
Inflexible 64 Tancrede 540 Lost at the entrance to the Vilaine
Sphinx 64 Goyon 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until April, 1762 [12]
Bizarre 64 Prince de Montbazon 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Frigates and corvettes
Hébé 40 300 Returned to Brest
Aigrette 36 Escaped to the Vilaine
Vestale 34 254 Escaped to the Vilaine
Calypso 16 Escaped to the Vilaine
Prince Noir/Noire Escaped to the Vilaine
Other
Vengeance ?

France


The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759 by Nicholas Tracy

Popular convention seems to place the birth of the Royal Navy as 1805. Somehow the fleet simply transpired in time for the ‘Nelson touch’. Of course, this kind of blinkered view ignores the battles of the Nile, Copenhagen and St Vincent earlier in the same war, but also the hundreds of years of development beforehand. Of course Nelson is the greatest Admiral in British History, but he is by no means the only great Admiral, and certainly not the first. This book by Nicholas Tracy goes some way to redressing the balance.

Admiral Hawke is a virtual unknown in British History, even here in Portsmouth. My only slight memory of the name is that Charles Dickens lived in Hawke Street in Portsea early in his life. But for an Admiral who apparently saved Britain from invasion during Heart of Oak’s ‘wonderful year’, Hawke has been remarkably unsung for some time. Its quite possible that Hawke, and other earlier seamen, have been overshadowed by Nelson’s later heroics. Revered naval theorist, Alfred Thayer Mahan, thought the Battle of Quiberon Bay was as significant as Nelson’s victory in 1805, calling it ‘the Trafalgar of the Seven Years War’. It might, Tracy argues, have been more important than that.

The Seven Years War between 1756 and 1763 found Britain, Prussia and a coalition of smaller German states at war with France, Austria, Russia and Sweden. As my tutor at university used to say, ‘because they deserved it, and they needed the practise’. The Seven years war found Britain essentially involved in a world war, due to the early development of Empire. Britain and France were rivals for domination, particularly in India and North America. Britain and France were fighting in Canada, culminating in Wolfe’s death at Quebec. The Hanoverian Army defeated a large French force at the battle of Minden in Germany. Against this tumultuous strategic background, France planned to invade England. British strategy of blockading continental Europe were developed during this period. In order to cut France off from her possessions overseas, and to prevent her allies and neutral states trading with her, the Royal Navy kept a close watch on French Ports. In addition to the blockading ships, the British Admiralty maintained a powerful channel fleet in the event of the French breaking out and threatening to invade Britain.

Nicholas Tracy’s conclusion is that many of the aspects of the Royal Navy that we came to see in 1805 were born much earlier. There were some distinctly Nelsonian elements to the victory at Quiberon Bay – how the Admiralty and Hawke had laid down a central doctrine, but at the same time allowed their captains latitude to do what they thought best in the heat of battle. By comparison, the French fought by rigid obedience to orders that was unworkable in the pell-mell of a sea battle. The way that the British fought the battle – sailing into uncharted waters and into narrow channels in pursuit of the enemy also showed the kind of elan that later came to be expected of naval officers. Perhaps this new spirit of aggressiveness was caused by Byng’s execution some years earlier for supposed cowardice, and this is something that Tracy touches on. And, in yet another Trafalgar-like twist, the aftermath of the battle saw a terrible storm that sank several ships, including most of those captured by the British.

But Tracy does not focus just on the wooden walls and the salty sea dogs. Thanks to thorough primary and secondary research we are given a detailed and comprehensive persepctive of the context in British society and politics, and the situation across the channel too. One of the most important points to note is that the heavy defeat that France suffered in the Seven Years War led to the social unrest and upheaval that eventually brought about the French Revolution.

So, in essence, the same war that fine-tuned British naval strategy and traditions, but also the future war that would be its finest hour.


Order of battle

France

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
First Division
Soleil Royal 80 Capt. B. de Chasac 950 Flagship of Marquis de Conflans – Aground and burnt
Orient 80 Capt. N. de la Filière 750 Flagship of Chevalier de Guébridant Budes – Escaped to Rochefort
Glorieux 74 Villars de la Brosse 650 Escaped to the Vilaine
Robuste 74 Fragnier de Vienne 650 Escaped to the Vilaine
Dauphin Royal 74 Chevalier d'Uturbie Fragosse 630 Escaped to Rochefort
Dragon 64 Vassor de la Touche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine
Solitaire 64 Vicomte de Langle 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Second Division
Tonnant 80 Capt. St Victoret 800 Flagship of Chevalier de Beauffremont – Escaped to Rochefort
Intrépide 74 Chastologer 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Thésée 74 Kersaint de Coetnempren 650 Foundered
Northumberland 70 Belingant de Kerbabut 630 Escaped to Rochefort
Superbe 74 Montalais 630 Sunk by Royal George
Eveillé 64 Prévalais de la Roche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine
Brillant 64 Keremar Boischateau 450 Escaped to the Vilaine
Third Division
Formidable 80 Capt. St André 800 Flagship of De Saint André du Vergé – Taken by Resolution
Magnifique 74 Bigot de Morogues 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Héros 74 Vicomte de Sanzay 650 Surrendered, but ran aground next day during heavy weather, burnt
Juste 70 François de Saint Aloüarn 630 Wrecked in the Loire
Inflexible 64 Tancrede 540 Lost at the entrance to the Vilaine
Sphinx 64 Goyon 450
Bizarre 64 Prince de Montbazon 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Frigates and corvettes
Hébé 40 300 Returned to Brest
Vestale 254 Escaped to the Vilaine
Aigrette Escaped to the Vilaine
Calypso Escaped to the Vilaine
Prince Noir/Noire Escaped to the Vilaine
Other
Vengeance ?

Britain

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
Royal George 100 Captain John Campbell 880 Flagship of Sir Edward Hawke
Union 90 Captain J. Evans 770 Flagship of Sir Charles Hardy
Duke 80 Samuel Graves 800
Namur 90 Matthew Buckle 780
Resolution 74 Henry Speke 600 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Hero 74 George Edgcumbe 600
Warspite 74 Sir John Bentley 600
Hercules 74 W. Fortescue 600
Torbay 70 Augustus Keppel 520
Magnanime 70 Viscount Howe 520
Mars 70 Commodore James Young 520
Swiftsure 70 Sir Thomas Stanhope 520
Dorsetshire 70 Peter Denis 520
Burford 70 G. Gambier 520
Chichester 70 W. S. Willet 520
Temple 70 Hon. W. Shirley 520
Essex 64 Lucius O'Brien 480 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Revenge 64 J. Storr 480
Montague 60 Joshua Rowley 400
Kingston 60 Thomas Shirley 400
Intrepid 60 J. Maplesden 400
Dunkirk 60 R. Digby 420
Defiance 60 P. Baird 420
Chatham 50 John Lockhart 350
Minerva 32 A. Hood 220
Venus 36 T. Harrison 240
Vengeance 28 F. Burslem 200
Coventry 28 D. Digges 200
Sapphire 32 J. Strachan 220

Order of battle

France

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
First Division
Soleil Royal 80 Capt. B. de Chasac 950 Flagship of Marquis de Conflans – Aground and burnt
Orient 80 Capt. N. de la Filière 750 Flagship of Chevalier de Guébridant Budes – Escaped to Rochefort
Glorieux 74 Villars de la Brosse 650 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until April, 1762 [12]
Robuste 74 Fragnier de Vienne 650 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until 1761, returned to Brest in January, 1762 [12]
Dauphin Royal 70 Chevalier d'Uturbie Fragosse 630 Escaped to Rochefort
Dragon 64 Vassor de la Touche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until January, 1761 [12]
Solitaire 64 Vicomte de Langle 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Second Division
Tonnant 80 Capt. St Victoret 800 Flagship of Chevalier de Beauffremont – Escaped to Rochefort
Intrépide 74 Chastologer 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Thésée 74 Kersaint de Coetnempren 650 Foundered
Superbe 70 Montalais 630 Sunk by Royal George
Northumberland 64 Belingant de Kerbabut 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Eveillé 64 Prévalais de la Roche 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until 1761, returned to Brest in January, 1762 [12]
Brillant 64 Keremar Boischateau 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until January, 1761 [12]
Third Division
Formidable 80 Capt. St André 800 Flagship of De Saint André du Vergé – Taken by Resolution
Magnifique 74 Bigot de Morogues 650 Escaped to Rochefort
Héros 74 Vicomte de Sanzay 650 Surrendered, but ran aground next day during heavy weather, burnt
Juste 70 François de Saint Aloüarn 630 Wrecked in the Loire
Inflexible 64 Tancrede 540 Lost at the entrance to the Vilaine
Sphinx 64 Goyon 450 Escaped to the Vilaine, blockaded there until April, 1762 [12]
Bizarre 64 Prince de Montbazon 450 Escaped to Rochefort
Frigates and corvettes
Hébé 40 300 Returned to Brest
Aigrette 36 Escaped to the Vilaine
Vestale 34 254 Escaped to the Vilaine
Calypso 16 Escaped to the Vilaine
Prince Noir/Noire Escaped to the Vilaine
Other
Vengeance ?

Britain

Name Guns Commander Men Notes
Royal George 100 Captain John Campbell 880 Flagship of Sir Edward Hawke
Union 90 Captain John Evans 770 Flagship of Sir Charles Hardy
Duke 80 Samuel Graves 800
Namur 90 Matthew Buckle 780
Mars 74 Commodore James Young 600
Warspite 74 Sir John Bentley 600
Hercules 74 William Fortescue 600
Torbay 74 Augustus Keppel 600
Magnanime 74 Viscount Howe 600
Resolution 74 Henry Speke 600 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Hero 74 George Edgcumbe 600
Swiftsure 70 Sir Thomas Stanhope 520
Dorsetshire 70 Peter Denis 520
Burford 70 James Gambier 520
Chichester 70 William Saltren Willet 520
Temple 70 Washington Shirley 520
Essex 64 Lucius O'Brien 480 Wrecked on Le Four shoal
Revenge 64 John Storr 480
Montague 60 Joshua Rowley 400
Kingston 60 Thomas Shirley 400
Intrepid 60 Jervis Maplesden 400
Dunkirk 60 Robert Digby 420
Defiance 60 Patrick Baird 420
Rochester 50 Robert Duff 350
HMS Portland 50 Mariot Arbuthnot 350
HMS Falkland 50 Francis Samuel Drake 350
Chatham 50 John Lockhart 350
Venus 36 Thomas Harrison 240
Minerva 32 Alexander Hood 220
Sapphire 32 John Strachan 220
Vengeance 28 Gamaliel Nightingale 200
Coventry 28 Francis Burslem 200
Maidstone 28 Dudley Digges 200


Watch the video: The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759 (August 2022).