Intrepid III bark - History

Intrepid III bark - History

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Intrepid III

(Bark: t. 1,800, 1. 176'5" b.p., b. 45'8"; dr. 16'5"; colt
136; a. 6 4", 4 6-pdrs., 2 1-pdrs. )

The third Intrepid Was launched by Mare Island Navy Yard 8 October 1904; sponsored by Miss Helen de Young and commissioned 16 August 1907, Comdr. Edward E. Capohart in command.

The steel bark was assigned to the Yerba Buena Training Station, San Francisco for duty until 28 February 1912 when she became the receiving ship at the same station. The latter assignment lasted until 25 January 1914 when Intrepid became receiving ship at Mare Island Navy Yard, where she decommissioned 15 October.

Intrepid commissioned in ordinary at Mare Island Navy Yard 11 November 1915 for use as a barracks for the men of submarines F-1 through F-4 of the Pacific Fieet. In 1920 she agaiu became receiving ship at Mare Island Navy Yard. Intrepid decommissioned 30 August 192i and was sold 20 December.

Charles W. Morgan (ship)

Charles W. Morgan is an American whaling ship built in 1841 that was active during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ships of this type were used to harvest the blubber of whales for whale oil which was commonly used in lamps. Charles W. Morgan has served as a museum ship since the 1940s and is now an exhibit at the Mystic Seaport museum in Mystic, Connecticut. She is the world's oldest surviving (non-wrecked) merchant vessel and the only surviving wooden whaling ship from the 19th century American merchant fleet (of an estimated 2,700 built). [7] The Morgan was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. [1]

    , 1841– , c.1863 – c.1912 [1] , c.1925–1941 [1]
  • Whaling Enshrined, Inc., 1941 [1] , 1941–
    : 367608930
  • Call sign: WDH3594


Early life Edit

Lotario de' Conti was born in Gavignano, Italy, near Anagni. [3] His father Count Trasimondo of Segni was a member of a famous house, the Conti di Segni (Counts of Segni), which produced nine popes including Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Lotario was the nephew of Pope Clement III his mother, Clarissa Scotti (Romani de Scotti), was from the same noble Roman family. [4]

Lotario received his early education in Rome, probably at the Benedictine abbey of St Andrea al Celio, under Peter Ismael [5] he studied theology in Paris under the theologians Peter of Poitiers, Melior of Pisa, and Peter of Corbeil, [6] and (possibly) jurisprudence in Bologna, according to the Gesta (between 1187 and 1189). [7] As pope, Lotario was to play a major role in the shaping of canon law through conciliar canons and decretal letters. [3]

Shortly after the death of Alexander III (30 August 1181) Lotario returned to Rome and held various ecclesiastical offices during the short reigns of Lucius III, Urban III, Gregory VIII, and Clement III, being ordained a Subdeacon by Gregory VIII and reaching the rank of Cardinal-Priest under Clement III in 1191.

As a cardinal, Lotario wrote De miseria humanae conditionis (On the Misery of the Human Condition). [8] [9] The work was very popular for centuries, surviving in more than 700 manuscripts. [10] Although he never returned to the complementary work he intended to write, On the Dignity of Human Nature, Bartolomeo Facio (1400–1457) took up the task writing De excellentia ac praestantia hominis. [11]

Election to the papacy Edit

Celestine III died on 8 January 1198. Before his death he had urged the College of Cardinals to elect Giovanni di San Paolo as his successor, but Lotario de' Conti was elected pope in the ruins of the ancient Septizodium, near the Circus Maximus in Rome after only two ballots on the very day on which Celestine III died. He was only thirty-seven years old at the time. [3] He took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II (1130–1143), who had succeeded in asserting the papacy's authority over the emperor (in contrast with Celestine III's recent policy). [12]

Reassertion of papal power Edit

As pope, Innocent III began with a very wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority. During Innocent III's reign, the papacy was at the height of its powers. He was considered to be the most powerful person in Europe at the time. [13] In 1198, Innocent wrote to the prefect Acerbius and the nobles of Tuscany expressing his support of the medieval political theory of the sun and the moon. [14] His papacy asserted the absolute spiritual authority of his office, while still respecting the temporal authority of kings. [15]

There was scarcely a country in Europe over which Innocent III did not in some way or other assert the supremacy which he claimed for the papacy. He excommunicated Alfonso IX of Leon, for marrying a near relative, Berengaria, a daughter of Alfonso VIII, contrary to the laws of the Church, and effected their separation in 1204. For similar reasons he annulled, in 1208, the marriage of the crown-prince, Alfonso of Portugal, with Urraca, daughter of Alfonso of Castile. From Pedro II of Aragon he received that kingdom in vassalage and crowned him king at Rome in 1204. [16]

The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes. He was also determined to protect what he called "the liberty of the Church" from inroads by secular princes. This determination meant, among other things, that princes should not be involved in the selection of bishops, and it was focused especially on the "patrimonium" of the papacy, the section of central Italy claimed by the popes and later called the Papal States. The patrimonium was routinely threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, claimed it for themselves. Emperor Henry VI expected his infant son Frederick to bring Germany, Italy, and Sicily under a single ruler, which would leave the Papal States exceedingly vulnerable. [3]

Henry's early death left his 3-year-old son, Frederick, as king of Sicily. Henry VI's widow, Constance of Sicily, ruled over Sicily for her young son before he reached the age of majority. She was as eager to remove German power from the kingdom of Sicily as was Innocent III. Before her death in 1198, she named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity. In exchange, Innocent was also able to recover papal rights in Sicily that had been surrendered decades earlier to King William I of Sicily by Pope Adrian IV. The Pope invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198. He also later induced Frederick II to marry Constance of Aragon, the widow of King Emeric of Hungary, in 1209. [3]

Involvement in Imperial elections Edit

Innocent was concerned that the marriage of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily gave the Hohenstaufens a claim to all the Italian peninsula with the exception of the Papal States, which would be surrounded by Imperial territory. [15]

After the death of Emperor Henry VI, who had recently also conquered the Kingdom of Sicily, the succession became disputed: as Henry's son Frederick was still a small child, the partisans of the Staufen dynasty elected Henry's brother, Philip, Duke of Swabia, king in March 1198, whereas the princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty elected Otto, Duke of Brunswick, of the House of Welf. King Philip II of France supported Philip's claim, whereas King Richard I of England supported his nephew Otto. [17]

In 1201, the pope openly espoused the side of Otto IV, whose family had always been opposed to the house of Hohenstaufen. [18]

It is the business of the pope to look after the interests of the Roman empire, since the empire derives its origin and its final authority from the papacy its origin, because it was originally transferred from Greece by and for the sake of the papacy . its final authority, because the emperor is raised to his position by the pope who blesses him, crowns him and invests him with the empire. . Therefore, since three persons have lately been elected king by different parties, namely the youth [Frederick, son of Henry VI], Philip [of Hohenstaufen, brother of Henry VI], and Otto [of Brunswick, of the Welf family], so also three things must be taken into account in regard to each one, namely: the legality, the suitability and the expediency of his election. . Far be it from us that we should defer to man rather than to God, or that we should fear the countenance of the powerful. . On the foregoing grounds, then, we decide that the youth should not at present be given the empire we utterly reject Philip for his manifest unfitness and we order his usurpation to be resisted by all . since Otto is not only himself devoted to the church, but comes from devout ancestors on both sides, . therefore we decree that he ought to be accepted and supported as king, and ought to be given the crown of empire, after the rights of the Roman church have been secured. "Papal Decree on the choice of a German King, 1201" [19]

The confusion in the Empire allowed Innocent to drive out the imperial feudal lords from Ancona, Spoleto and Perugia, who had been installed by Emperor Henry VI. [20] On 3 July 1201, the papal legate, Cardinal-Bishop Guido of Palestrina, announced to the people, in the cathedral of Cologne, that Otto IV had been approved by the pope as Roman king and threatened with excommunication all those who refused to acknowledge him. At the same time, Innocent encouraged the cities in Tuscany to form a league called the League of San Genesio against German imperial interests in Italy, and they placed themselves under Innocent's protection. [20]

In May 1202, Innocent issued the decree Venerabilem, addressed to the Duke of Zähringen, in which he explained his thinking on the relation between the papacy and the Empire. This decree was afterwards embodied in the Corpus Juris Canonici and contained the following items:

  • The German princes have the right to elect the king, who is afterwards to become emperor. This right was given them by the Apostolic See when it transferred the imperial dignity from the Greeks to the Germans in the person of Charlemagne.
  • The right to investigate and decide whether a king thus elected is worthy of the imperial dignity belongs to the pope, whose office it is to anoint, consecrate, and crown him otherwise it might happen that the pope would be obliged to anoint, consecrate, and crown a king who was excommunicated, a heretic, or a pagan.
  • If the pope finds that the king who has been elected by the princes is unworthy of the imperial dignity, the princes must elect a new king or, if they refuse, the pope will confer the imperial dignity upon another king for the Church stands in need of a patron and defender.
  • In case of a double election the pope must exhort the princes to come to an agreement. If after a due interval they have not reached an agreement they must ask the pope to arbitrate, failing which, he must of his own accord and by virtue of his office decide in favour of one of the claimants. The pope's decision need not be based on the greater or less legality of either election, but on the qualifications of the claimants. [3]

Despite papal support, Otto could not oust his rival Philip until the latter was murdered in a private feud. His rule now undisputed, Otto reneged on his earlier promises and set his sights on reestablishing Imperial power in Italy and claiming even the Kingdom of Sicily. Given the papal interest to keep Germany and Sicily apart, Innocent now supported his ward, King Frederick of Sicily, to resist Otto's advances and restore the Staufen dynasty to the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick was duly elected by the Staufen partisans. [21]

The conflict was decided by the Battle of Bouvines on 27 July 1214, which pitted Otto, allied to King John of England against Philip II Augustus. Otto was defeated by the French and thereafter lost all influence. He died on 19 May 1218, leaving Frederick II the undisputed emperor. Meanwhile, King John was forced to acknowledge the Pope as his feudal lord and accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. [22] In his turn, Frederick II would later become a bitter opponent of the papacy once his empire was secure.

Feudal power over Europe Edit

Innocent III played further roles in the politics of Norway, [23] France, Sweden, Bulgaria, Spain and England. [22] At the request of England's King John, Pope Innocent III declared the Magna Carta annulled, resulting in a rebellion by the English Barons who rejected the disenfranchisement. [24]

Crusades and suppression of heresy Edit

Pope Innocent III was also a zealous protector of the Catholic faith and a strenuous opponent of heresy. His chief activity was turned against the Albigenses who had become so numerous and aggressive that they were no longer satisfied with just being adherents of heretical doctrines but even endeavoured to spread their heresy by force. They were especially numerous in a few cities of Northern and Southern France. During the first year of his pontificate, Innocent sent the two Cistercian monks Rainer and Guido to the Albigenses in France to preach to them the true doctrines of the Catholic faith and dispute with them on controverted topics of religion. The two Cistercian missionaries were soon followed by Diego, Bishop of Osma, then by Saint Dominic and the two papal legates. Peter of Castelnau and Raoul.

When, however, these peaceful missionaries were ridiculed and despised by the Albigenses, and the papal legate Castelnau was assassinated in 1208, Innocent resorted to force. He ordered the bishops of Southern France to put under interdict the participants in the murder and all the towns that gave shelter to them. He was especially incensed against Count Raymond of Toulouse who had previously been excommunicated by the murdered legate and whom, for good reasons, the pope suspected as the instigator of the murder. The count protested his innocence and submitted to the pope, probably out of cowardice, but the pope placed no further trust in him. He called upon the King of France, Philip II to raise an army for the suppression of the Albigenses. Under the leadership of Simon of Montfort a cruel campaign ensued against the Albigenses which, despite the protest of Innocent, soon turned into a war of conquest. [25]

The Albigensian Crusade led to the deaths of approximately 20,000 men, women and children, Cathar and Catholic alike, decimating the number of practising Cathars and diminishing the region's distinct culture. [26] The conflict took on a political flavor, directed not only against the heretics, but also the nobility of Toulouse and vassals of the Crown of Aragon, and finally brought the region firmly under the control of the king of France. King Peter II of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, was directly involved in the conflict, and was killed in the course of the Battle of Muret in 1213. The conflict largely ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1229, in which the integration of the Occitan territory in the French crown was agreed upon.

Pope Innocent III spent a majority of his tenure as Pope (1198–1216) preparing for a great crusade on the Holy Land. His first attempt was the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) which he decreed by the papal bull Post miserabile in 1198. [27] [28] Unlike past popes, Innocent III displayed interest in leading the crusade himself, rather than simply instigating it and allowing secular leaders to organize the expedition according to their own aspirations. [26]

Innocent III's first order of business in preaching the crusade was to send missionaries to every Catholic state to endorse the campaign. He sent Peter of Capua to the kings of France and England with specific instructions to convince them to settle their differences, resulting in a truce of five years between the two nations, beginning in 1199. The intent of the truce was not to allow the two kings to lead the crusade, but rather to free their resources to assist the Crusade. For the army's leadership, Innocent aimed his pleas at the knights and nobles of Europe, [26] succeeding in France, where many lords answered the pope's call, including the army's two eventual leaders, Theobald of Champagne and Boniface, marquis of Montferrat. The pope's calls to action were not received with as much enthusiasm in England or Germany, and the expedition became mainly a French affair. [29]

The Fourth Crusade was an expensive endeavor. Innocent III chose to raise funds with a new approach: requiring all clergy to donate one fortieth of their income. This marked the first time a pope ever imposed a direct tax on the clergy. He faced many difficulties in collecting this tax, including corrupt tax collectors and disregard in England. He also sent envoys to King John of England and King Philip of France, who pledged to contribute to the campaign, [ citation needed ] and John also declared his support for the clerical tax in his kingdom. The crusaders too contributed funds: Innocent declared that those who took the crusader's vow, but could no longer fulfill it, could be released by a contribution of funds. The pope put Archbishop Hubert Walter in charge of collecting these dues. [26] [30]

At the onset of the crusade, the intended destination was Egypt, as the Christians and Muslims were under a truce at the time. [29] An agreement was made between the French Crusaders and the Venetians. The Venetians would supply vessels and supplies for the crusaders and in return the crusaders would pay 85,000 marks (£200,000). [31] Innocent gave his approval of this agreement under two conditions: a representative of the pope must accompany the crusade, and the attack on any other Christians was strictly forbidden. The French failed to raise sufficient funds for payment of the Venetians. As a result, the Crusaders diverted the crusade to the Christian city of Zara at the will of the Venetians, to subsidize the debt. This diversion was adopted without the consent of Innocent III, who threatened excommunication to any who took part in the attack. A majority of the French ignored the threat and attacked Zara, and were excommunicated by Innocent III, but soon were forgiven so as to continue the crusade. A second diversion then occurred when the crusaders decided to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, at the behest of the exiled Byzantine prince Alexios IV. This diversion was taken without any knowledge by Innocent III, and he did not learn of it until after the city had been captured. [32]

Innocent III was heavily opposed to the attack on Constantinople and sent many letters warning the crusaders to not sack the city. Innocent III excommunicated the crusaders who attacked Byzantine cities, but was unable to physically halt or overturn their actions. The attack on Constantinople led to the start of the Latin Empire's rule of Constantinople, which lasted for the next sixty years. [33]

Francis of Assisi Edit

In 1209, Francis of Assisi led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious order which was ultimately granted. [34] Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company Giovanni di San Paolo, the Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina. The cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope. Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day. After several days, the pope agreed to admit the group informally, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured. [35] This was important in part because it recognized Church authority and protected his followers from possible accusations of heresy, as had happened to the Waldensians decades earlier. Though Pope Innocent initially had his doubts, following a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the Basilica of St. John Lateran (the cathedral of Rome, thus the 'home church' of all Christendom), he decided to endorse Francis's order. This occurred, according to tradition, on 16 April 1210, and constituted the official founding of the Franciscan Order. The group, then the "Lesser Brothers" (Order of Friars Minor also known as the Franciscan Order), preached on the streets and had no possessions. They were centered in Porziuncola and preached first in Umbria, before expanding throughout Italy. [36]

Other religious orders Edit

The lesser religious orders which Pope Innocent III approved are the Hospitallers of the Holy Ghost on 23 April, 1198, the Trinitarians on 17 December, 1198, and the Humiliati, in June, 1201.

Fourth Council of the Lateran Edit

On 15 November 1215, Pope Innocent III convened the Fourth Lateran Council which was considered to be the most important Church council of the Middle Ages. By its conclusion, it issued seventy reformatory decrees. Among other things, it encouraged creating schools and holding clergy to a higher standard than the laity. Canon 18 forbade clergymen to participate in the practice of the judicial ordeal, effectively banning its use. [37]

In order to define fundamental doctrines, the council reviewed the nature of the Holy Eucharist, the ordered annual confession of sins, and prescribed detailed procedures for the election of bishops. The council also mandated a strict lifestyle for clergy. Canon 68 states: Jews and Muslims shall wear a special dress to enable them to be distinguished from Christians so that no Christian shall come to marry them ignorant of who they are. [38] Canon 69 forbade "that Jews be given preferment in public office since this offers them the pretext to vent their wrath against the Christians." [39] It assumes that Jews blaspheme Christ, and therefore, as it would be "too absurd for a blasphemer of Christ to exercise power over Christians", [40] Jews should not be appointed to public offices.

Death and legacy Edit

The Council had set the beginning of the Fifth Crusade for 1217, under the direct leadership of the Church. After the Council, in the spring of 1216, Innocent moved to northern Italy in an attempt to reconcile the maritime cities of Pisa and Genoa by removing the excommunication cast over Pisa by his predecessor Celestine III and concluding a pact with Genoa. [41]

Innocent III, however, died suddenly at Perugia [3] on 16 June 1216. He was buried in the cathedral of Perugia, where his body remained until Pope Leo XIII had it transferred to the Lateran in December 1891. [3]

After his death, Innocent III was believed to be in purgatory. He is said to have appeared to St. Lutgarda in her monastery at Aywieres in Brabant. Engulfed in flames, he declared to her, “I am Pope Innocent”. He continued to explain that he was in purgatory for three faults which had caused him to arrive in this state, the first was never having wanted to bow his head during the recitation of the Nicene Creed as a sign of humility, the other two were not reported. Innocent asked St. Lutgarda to come to his assistance, saying, “Alas! It is terrible and will last for centuries if you do not come to my assistance. In the name of Mary, who has obtained for me the favour of appealing to you, help me!” At that moment he disappeared and St. Lutgarda informed her sisters of what she had seen as Innocent had asked her to redouble her prayers and penances to free him from purgatory before the consummation of the world. St. Lutgardis heeded his plea and years later he reappeared to her resplendent in glory to thank her for obtaining his release from purgatory. Despite this, he is not officially canonized by the Catholic Church. [42] [43]

Innocent is one of two popes (the other being Gregory IX) among the 23 historical figures depicted in marble relief portraits above the gallery doors of the U.S. House of Representatives in honor of their influence on the development of American law. [44]

His Latin works include De miseria humanae conditionis, a tract on asceticism that Innocent III wrote before becoming pope, and De sacro altaris mysterio, a description and exegesis of the liturgy. [9]


Related topics


Background information

The USS Excelsior was first mentioned in the script of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan , in which Kirk stated that Sulu was going to have command of the Excelsior by the end of the month. [1] Apparently, Sulu's presence aboard the Enterprise at that time was solely as a courtesy to Kirk.

The Excelsior was featured in the story outline Star Trek III: Return to Genesis (which served as the conceptual starting point for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock and was dated 16 September 1982). However, in the first draft script of The Search for Spock (dated 23 March 1983), the ship was instead named USS Valiant.

The USS Excelsior was designed for the production of Star Trek III, after the review of several prototype studio model ideas. Built by ILM, this highly detailed studio model was reused for many guest appearances until 1994 when it was refurbished to become the USS Enterprise-B and later the USS Lakota. After that, a half-scale recreation was built for "Flashback", with minor differences – even though it was supposedly the same ship as seen earlier. For example, "Flashback" features the only appearances of the ship's warp nacelles glowing, although the episode also incorporated footage from Star Trek VI in which the nacelle sides did not glow.

The model is now part of collections. [2]

The ship's computer voice was supplied by Star Trek star Leonard Nimoy, who was credited as "Frank Force".

The Excelsior's motto, as seen on the ship's dedication plaque, was "No matter where you go, there you are," a quotation taken from Buckaroo Banzai.

In the German dubbing of Star Trek III, Uhura's line "Would you look at that!" was changed to (re-translated) "Look at that: Thorndike's idea!" This could provide insight into who was material to the creation of the ship. Done for lip-syncing purposes, common practice when dubbing episodes and movies, the name "Thorndike" was introduced solely for this purpose and does not refer to any canonical figure in the Star Trek universe.

The Excelsior was originally to have been included in the film Star Trek Generations , being saved (along with some El-Aurian refugees) by the crew of the Enterprise (including Uhura). However, in that case, the Excelsior was ultimately replaced with the Enterprise-B. (The Fifty-Year Mission: The Next 25 Years, p. 315)

According to the Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 254), the Excelsior was either launched in 2284 or in 2285.

According to Star Trek - The Art of the Film, a USS Excelsior (NCC-1729) was to be among the ships sent to the destruction of Vulcan. It was to be a darker-colored version of the USS Armstrong.

According to the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual, there was also a Constitution-class USS Excelsior in service in the mid-23rd century, with the registry NCC-1718.


In the Pocket TOS novelizations of Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan and Star Trek III: The Search for Spock by Vonda N. McIntyre, it was stated that Sulu helped design the ship, and was originally slated to be her captain at the time of the "minor training cruise" in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan . It was further explained in the novelization for Star Trek III' that the arrogant Captain Styles was placed in temporary command by Fleet Admiral Morrow as part of an effort to sequester those with direct knowledge of Genesis and Starfleet's unwillingness to delay trial runs until the controversy subsided, due to the considerable investment in the ship's development. In the novel Forged in Fire, Sulu became captain of the Excelsior in 2289, after Captain Styles was murdered by the Albino.

The Lost Era novel The Sundered was set aboard Excelsior in 2298 with Chekov as first officer, Christine Chapel as chief medical officer, Leonard James Akaar as security chief, Janice Rand as communications officer, and Tuvok as science officer. In the later Lost Era novel One Constant Star, the Excelsior was destroyed in 2308 after passing through a temporal rift Captain Sulu and his surviving crew are rescued eleven years later by the USS Enterprise-B, commanded by Sulu's daughter Demora.

The crew also appear in the novelization Star Trek Generations.

When DC Comics created the first set of comics for Star Trek, because they were being released in between Star Trek III: The Search for Spock and Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home , the crew of the Enterprise ends up taking control of the Excelsior after the events of The Mirror Universe Saga until "Choices!", when the crew switches over to the USS Enterprise-A.

Intrepid III bark - History

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Bark, in woody plants, tissues external to the vascular cambium (the growth layer of the vascular cylinder) the term bark is also employed more popularly to refer to all tissues outside the wood. The inner soft bark, or bast, is produced by the vascular cambium it consists of secondary phloem tissue whose innermost layer conveys food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. The outer bark, which is mostly dead tissue, is the product of the cork cambium (phellogen). Layered outer bark, containing cork and old, dead phloem, is known as rhytidome. The dead cork cells are lined with suberin, a fatty substance that makes them highly impermeable to gases and water. Gas exchange between the inner tissues of bark-covered roots and stems and their surroundings takes place through spongy areas (lenticels) in the cork.

Bark is usually thinner than the woody part of the stem or root. Both inner bark (secondary phloem) and wood (secondary xylem) are generated by the vascular cambium layer of cells: bark toward the outside where the oldest layers may slough off, and wood toward the inside where it accumulates as dead tissue.


  • Explaining Metaphysics to the nation —
    I wish he would explain his explanation.
    • Dedication, st. 2 (on Samuel Taylor Coleridge).
    • Brave men were living before Agamemnon.
      • Stanza 5 comparable to "Vixerunt fortes ante Agamemnona / Multi", Horace, Ode iv, 9, 25.
      • In vitues nothing earthly could surpass her,
        Save thine "incomparable oil," Macassar!
        • Stanza 17.
        • But — Oh! ye lords of ladies intellectual,
          Inform us truly, have they not hen-peck'd you all?
          • Stanza 22.
          • The languages, especially the dead,
            The sciences, and most of all the abstruse,
            The arts, at least all such as could be said
            To be the most remote from common use.
            • Stanza 40.
            • She, in sooth,
              Possess'd an air and grace by no means common:
              Her stature tall — I hate a dumpy woman.
              • Stanza 61.
              • What men call gallantry, and gods adultery,
                Is much more common where the climate's sultry.
                • Stanza 63.
                • Christians have burnt each other, quite persuaded
                  That all the Apostles would have done as they did.
                  • Stanza 83.
                  • A little still she strove, and much repented
                    And whispering 'I will ne'er consent' — consented.
                    • Stanza 117.
                    • 'Tis sweet to hear the watch-dog's honest bark
                      Bay deep-mouth'd welcome as we draw near home
                      'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark
                      Our coming, and look brighter when we come.
                      • Stanza 123.
                      • Sweet is revenge — especially to women.
                        • Stanza 124.
                        • Pleasure's a sin, and sometimes sin's a pleasure.
                          • Stanza 133.
                          • And truant husband should return, and say,
                            "My dear, I was the first who came away".
                            • Stanza 141.
                            • Man's love is of man's life a thing apart,
                              'Tis woman's whole existence.
                              • Stanza 194.
                              • In my hot youth, when George the Third was king.
                                • Stanza 212.
                                • So for a good old-gentlemanly vice
                                  I think I must take up with avarice.
                                  • Stanza 216 comparable to "That disease / Of which all old men sicken,—avarice", Thomas Middleton, The Roaring Girl (1611), Act i, Scene 1.
                                  • What is the end of fame? 'T is but to fill
                                    A certain portion of uncertain paper.
                                    • Stanza 218.
                                    • At leaving even the most unpleasant people
                                      And places, one keeps looking at the steeple.
                                      • Stanza 14.
                                      • There's nought, no doubt, so much the spirit calms
                                        As rum and true religion.
                                        • Stanza 34.
                                        • A solitary shriek, the bubbling cry
                                          Of some strong swimmer in his agony.
                                          • Stanza 53.
                                          • If this be true, indeed,
                                            Some Christians have a comfortable creed.
                                            • Stanza 86.
                                            • That Pasiphaë promoted breeding cattle,
                                              To make the Cretans bloodier in battle.
                                              For we all know that English people are
                                              Fed upon beef—I won't say much of beer,
                                              Because 't is liquor only, and being far
                                              From this my subject, has no business here
                                              We know, too, they very fond of war,
                                              A pleasure—like all pleasures—rather dear
                                              So were the Cretans—from which I infer
                                              That beef and battles both were owing to her.
                                              • Stanza 155-6.
                                              • All who joy would win
                                                Must share it,—happiness was born a twin.
                                                • Stanza 172.
                                                • Let us have wine and women, mirth and laughter,
                                                  Sermons and soda water the day after.
                                                  • Stanza 178.
                                                  • A long, long kiss,—a kiss of youth and love.
                                                    • Stanza 186.
                                                    • Alas, the love of women! it is known
                                                      To be a lovely and a fearful thing.
                                                      • Stanza 199.
                                                      • In her first passion woman loves her lover:
                                                        In all the others, all she loves is love.
                                                        • Stanza 3 comparable to "Dans les premières passions les femmes aiment l'amant, et dans les autres elles aiment l'amour", Francis, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Maxim 471.
                                                        • Think you, if Laura had been Petrarch's wife,
                                                          He would have written sonnets all his life?
                                                          • Stanza 8.
                                                          • All tragedies are finish'd by a death,
                                                            All comedies are ended by a marriage.
                                                          • He was the mildest-mannered man
                                                            That ever scuttled ship or cut a throat.
                                                            • Stanza 41.
                                                            • Even good men like to make the public stare.
                                                              • Stanza 81.
                                                              • But words are things, and a small drop of ink,
                                                                Falling like dew, upon a thought, produces
                                                                That which makes thousands, perhaps millions, think
                                                                • Stanza 88.
                                                                • The isles of Greece, the Isles of Greece!
                                                                  Where burning Sappho loved and sung,
                                                                  Where grew the arts of war and peace,
                                                                  Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung!
                                                                  Eternal summer gilds them yet,
                                                                  But all, except their sun, is set.
                                                                  • Stanza 86-1 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 1).
                                                                  • The mountains look on Marathon —
                                                                    And Marathon looks on the sea
                                                                    And musing there an hour alone,
                                                                    I dream'd that Greece might still be free.
                                                                    • Stanza 86-3 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 3).
                                                                    • And where are they? and where art thou,
                                                                      My country? On thy voiceless shore
                                                                      The heroic lay is tuneless now —
                                                                      The heroic bosom beats no more!
                                                                      And must thy lyre, so long divine,
                                                                      Degenerate into hands like mine?
                                                                      • Stanza 86-5 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 5).
                                                                      • Earth! render back from out thy breast
                                                                        A remnant of our Spartan dead!
                                                                        Of the three hundred grant but three,
                                                                        To make a new Thermopylae!
                                                                        • Stanza 86-7 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 7).
                                                                        • You have the Pyrrhic dance as yet,
                                                                          Where is the Pyrrhic phalanx gone?
                                                                          Of two such lessons, why forget
                                                                          The nobler and the manlier one?
                                                                          You have the letters Cadmus gave —
                                                                          Think ye he meant them for a slave?
                                                                          • Stanza 86-10 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 10).
                                                                          • Place me on Sunium's marbled steep,
                                                                            Where nothing, save the waves and I,
                                                                            May hear our mutual murmurs sweep
                                                                            There, swan-like, let me sing and die:
                                                                            A land of slaves shall ne'er be mine —
                                                                            Dash down yon cup of Samian wine!
                                                                            • Stanza 86-16 (The Isles of Greece, Stanza 16).
                                                                            • But words are things, and a small drop of ink,
                                                                              Falling like dew upon a thought, produces
                                                                              That which makes thousands, perhaps millions, think.
                                                                              • Stanza 88.
                                                                              • Ah, surely nothing dies but something mourns.
                                                                                • Stanza 108.

                                                                                Nothing so difficult as a beginning
                                                                                In poesy, unless perhaps the end

                                                                                For oftentimes when Pegasus seems winning
                                                                                The race, he sprains a wing, and down we tend,
                                                                                Like Lucifer when hurled from Heaven for sinning
                                                                                Our sin the same, and hard as his to mend,
                                                                                Being Pride, which leads the mind to soar too far,
                                                                                Till our own weakness shows us what we are.

                                                                                But Time, which brings all beings to their level,
                                                                                And sharp Adversity, will teach at last
                                                                                Man, — and, as we would hope, — perhaps the Devil,
                                                                                That neither of their intellects are vast:
                                                                                While Youth's hot wishes in our red veins revel,
                                                                                We know not this — the blood flows on too fast
                                                                                But as the torrent widens towards the Ocean,
                                                                                We ponder deeply on each past emotion.

                                                                                As boy, I thought myself a clever fellow,
                                                                                And wished that others held the same opinion
                                                                                They took it up when my days grew more mellow,
                                                                                And other minds acknowledged my dominion:
                                                                                Now my sere Fancy "falls into the yellow
                                                                                Leaf," and Imagination droops her pinion,
                                                                                And the sad truth which hovers o'er my desk
                                                                                Turns what was once romantic to burlesque.

                                                                                And if I laugh at any mortal thing,
                                                                                'T is that I may not weep
                                                                                and if I weep,
                                                                                'T is that our nature cannot always bring
                                                                                Itself to apathy, for we must steep
                                                                                Our hearts first in the depths of Lethe's spring,
                                                                                Ere what we least wish to behold will sleep:
                                                                                Thetis baptized her mortal son in Styx
                                                                                A mortal mother would on Lethe fix.


                                                                                Early life and education

                                                                                John Sidney McCain III was born on August 29, 1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta (Wright) McCain. He had an older sister Sandy and a younger brother Joe. [5] At that time, the Panama Canal was under U.S. control. [6]

                                                                                McCain's family tree includes Scots-Irish and English ancestors. [7] His great-great-great-grandparents owned High Rock Farm, a plantation in Rockingham County, North Carolina. [8] His father and his paternal grandfather, John S. McCain Sr., were also Naval Academy graduates and both became four-star admirals in the United States Navy. [9] The McCain family moved with their father as he took various naval postings in the United States and in the Pacific. [5] [10]

                                                                                As a result, he attended a total of about 20 schools. [11] In 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, and McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria. [12] [13] He excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954. [14] [15] He referred to himself as an Episcopalian as recently as June 2007, after which date he said he came to identify as a Baptist. [16]

                                                                                Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates [17] and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying. [9] He also fought as a lightweight boxer. [18] McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics. [9] [19] He came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank (894 of 899), despite a high IQ. [17] [20] McCain graduated in 1958. [17]

                                                                                Naval training, first marriage, and Vietnam War assignment

                                                                                McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign, and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. [21] While there, he earned a reputation as a man who partied. [11] He completed flight school in 1960, and became a naval pilot of ground-attack aircraft he was assigned to A-1 Skyraider squadrons [22] aboard the aircraft carriers USS Intrepid and USS Enterprise [23] in the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas. [24] McCain began as a sub-par flier [24] who was at times careless and reckless [25] during the early to mid-1960s, two of his flight missions crashed, and a third mission collided with power lines, but he received no major injuries. [25] His aviation skills improved over time, [24] and he was seen as a good pilot, albeit one who tended to "push the envelope" in his flying. [25]

                                                                                On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp, who had worked as a runway model and secretary. [26] McCain adopted her two young children, Douglas and Andrew. [23] [27] He and Carol then had a daughter whom they named Sidney. [28] [29]

                                                                                McCain requested a combat assignment, [30] and was assigned to the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal flying A-4 Skyhawks. [31] His combat duty began when he was 30 years old in mid-1967, when Forrestal was assigned to a bombing campaign, Operation Rolling Thunder, during the Vietnam War. [26] [32] Stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin, McCain and his fellow pilots became frustrated by micromanagement from Washington, and he later wrote, "In all candor, we thought our civilian commanders were complete idiots who didn't have the least notion of what it took to win the war." [32] [33]

                                                                                On July 29, 1967, McCain was a lieutenant commander when he was near the center of the USS Forrestal fire. He escaped from his burning jet and was trying to help another pilot escape when a bomb exploded [34] McCain was struck in the legs and chest by fragments. [35] The ensuing fire killed 134 sailors and took 24 hours to control. [36] [37] With the Forrestal out of commission, McCain volunteered for assignment with the USS Oriskany, another aircraft carrier employed in Operation Rolling Thunder. [38] There, he was awarded the Navy Commendation Medal and the Bronze Star Medal for missions flown over North Vietnam. [39]

                                                                                Prisoner of war

                                                                                McCain was taken prisoner of war on October 26, 1967. He was flying his 23rd bombing mission over North Vietnam when his A-4E Skyhawk was shot down by a missile over Hanoi. [40] [41] McCain fractured both arms and a leg when he ejected from the aircraft, [42] and nearly drowned after he parachuted into Trúc Bạch Lake. Some North Vietnamese pulled him ashore, then others crushed his shoulder with a rifle butt and bayoneted him. [40] McCain was then transported to Hanoi's main Hỏa Lò Prison, nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton". [41]

                                                                                Although McCain was seriously wounded and injured, his captors refused to treat him. They beat and interrogated him to get information, and he was given medical care only when the North Vietnamese discovered that his father was an admiral. [43] His status as a prisoner of war (POW) made the front pages of major American newspapers. [44] [45]

                                                                                McCain spent six weeks in the hospital, where he received marginal care. He had lost 50 pounds (23 kg), he was in a chest cast, and his gray hair had turned white. [40] McCain was sent to a different camp on the outskirts of Hanoi. [46] In December 1967, McCain was placed in a cell with two other Americans, who did not expect him to live more than a week. [47] In March 1968, McCain was placed into solitary confinement, where he remained for two years. [48]

                                                                                In mid-1968, his father John S. McCain Jr. was named commander of all U.S. forces in the Vietnam theater, and the North Vietnamese offered McCain early release [49] because they wanted to appear merciful for propaganda purposes, [50] and also to show other POWs that elite prisoners were willing to be treated preferentially. [49] McCain refused repatriation unless every man taken in before him was also released. Such early release was prohibited by the POWs' interpretation of the military Code of Conduct, which states in Article III: “I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.” [51] To prevent the enemy from using prisoners for propaganda, officers were to agree to be released in the order in which they were captured. [40]

                                                                                Beginning in August 1968, McCain was subjected to a program of severe torture. [52] He was bound and beaten every two hours this punishment occurred at the same time that he was suffering from heat exhaustion and dysentery. [40] [52] Further injuries brought McCain to “the point of suicide,” but his preparations were interrupted by guards. Eventually, McCain made an anti-U.S. propaganda "confession." [40] He had always felt that his statement was dishonorable, but as he later wrote, "I had learned what we all learned over there: every man has his breaking point. I had reached mine." [53] [54] Many U.S. POWs were tortured and maltreated in order to extract "confessions" and propaganda statements [55] virtually all of them eventually yielded something to their captors. [56] McCain received two to three beatings weekly because of his continued refusal to sign additional statements. [57]

                                                                                McCain refused to meet various anti-war groups seeking peace in Hanoi, wanting to give neither them nor the North Vietnamese a propaganda victory. [58] From late 1969, treatment of McCain and many of the other POWs became more tolerable, [59] while McCain continued to resist the camp authorities. [60] McCain and other prisoners cheered the U.S. "Christmas Bombing" campaign of December 1972, viewing it as a forceful measure to push North Vietnam to terms. [54] [61]

                                                                                McCain was a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for five and a half years, until his release on March 14, 1973, along with 108 other prisoners of war. [62] His wartime injuries left him permanently incapable of raising his arms above his head. [63] After the war, McCain, accompanied by his family and his second wife Cindy, returned to the site on a few occasions in efforts of trying to come to terms with what had happened to him there during his capture. [64]

                                                                                Commanding officer, liaison to Senate, and second marriage

                                                                                McCain was reunited with his family when he returned to the United States. His wife Carol had been severely injured by an automobile accident in December 1969. She was then four inches shorter, in a wheelchair or on crutches, and substantially heavier than when he had last seen her. As a returned POW, he became a celebrity of sorts. [65]

                                                                                McCain underwent treatment for his injuries that included months of physical therapy. [66] He attended the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C. during 1973–1974. [67] He was rehabilitated by late 1974, and his flight status was reinstated. In 1976, he became Commanding Officer of a training squadron that was stationed in Florida. [65] [68] He improved the unit's flight readiness and safety records, [69] and won the squadron its first-ever Meritorious Unit Commendation. [68] During this period in Florida, he had extramarital affairs, and his marriage began to falter, about which he later stated: "The blame was entirely mine". [70] [71]

                                                                                McCain served as the Navy's liaison to the U.S. Senate beginning in 1977. [72] In retrospect, he said that this represented his "real entry into the world of politics, and the beginning of my second career as a public servant." [65] His key behind-the-scenes role gained congressional financing for a new supercarrier against the wishes of the Carter administration. [66] [73]

                                                                                In April 1979, [66] McCain met Cindy Lou Hensley, a teacher from Phoenix, Arizona, whose father had founded a large beer distributorship. [71] They began dating, and he urged his wife, Carol, to grant him a divorce, which she did in February 1980 the uncontested divorce took effect in April 1980. [27] [66] The settlement included two houses, and financial support for her ongoing medical treatments due to her 1969 car accident they remained on good terms. [71] McCain and Hensley were married on May 17, 1980, with Senators William Cohen and Gary Hart attending as groomsmen. [26] [71] McCain's children did not attend, and several years passed before they reconciled. [29] [66] John and Cindy McCain entered into a prenuptial agreement that kept most of her family's assets under her name they kept their finances apart, and filed separate income tax returns. [74]

                                                                                McCain decided to leave the Navy. It was doubtful whether he would ever be promoted to the rank of full admiral, as he had poor annual physicals and had not been given a major sea command. [75] His chances of being promoted to rear admiral were better, but he declined that prospect, as he had already made plans to run for Congress and said he could "do more good there." [76] [77]

                                                                                McCain retired from the Navy as a captain on April 1, 1981. [39] [78] He was designated as disabled and awarded a disability pension. [79] Upon leaving the military, he moved to Arizona. His numerous military decorations and awards include: the Silver Star, two Legion of Merits, Distinguished Flying Cross, three Bronze Star Medals, two Purple Hearts, two Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medals, and the Prisoner of War Medal. [39]

                                                                                U.S. Representative

                                                                                McCain set his sights on becoming a representative because he was interested in current events, was ready for a new challenge, and had developed political ambitions during his time as Senate liaison. [71] [80] [81] Living in Phoenix, he went to work for Hensley & Co., his new father-in-law Jim Hensley's large Anheuser-Busch beer distributorship. [71] As vice president of public relations at the distributorship, he gained political support among the local business community, meeting powerful figures such as banker Charles Keating Jr., real estate developer Fife Symington III (later Governor of Arizona) and newspaper publisher Darrow "Duke" Tully. [72] In 1982, McCain ran as a Republican for an open seat in Arizona's 1st congressional district, which was being vacated by 30-year incumbent Republican John Jacob Rhodes. [82] A newcomer to the state, McCain was hit with charges of being a carpetbagger. [71] McCain responded to a voter making that charge with what a Phoenix Gazette columnist later described as "the most devastating response to a potentially troublesome political issue I've ever heard": [71]

                                                                                Listen, pal. I spent 22 years in the Navy. My father was in the Navy. My grandfather was in the Navy. We in the military service tend to move a lot. We have to live in all parts of the country, all parts of the world. I wish I could have had the luxury, like you, of growing up and living and spending my entire life in a nice place like the First District of Arizona, but I was doing other things. As a matter of fact, when I think about it now, the place I lived longest in my life was Hanoi. [71] [83]

                                                                                McCain won a highly contested primary election with the assistance of local political endorsements, his Washington connections, and money that his wife lent to his campaign. [71] [72] He then easily won the general election in the heavily Republican district. [71]

                                                                                In 1983, McCain was elected to lead the incoming group of Republican representatives, [71] and was assigned to the House Committee on Interior Affairs. Also that year, he opposed creation of a federal Martin Luther King Jr. Day, but admitted in 2008: "I was wrong and eventually realized that, in time to give full support [in 1990] for a state holiday in Arizona." [84] [85]

                                                                                At this point, McCain's politics were mainly in line with those of President Ronald Reagan this included support for Reaganomics, and he was active on Indian Affairs bills. [86] He supported most aspects of the foreign policy of the Reagan administration, including its hardline stance against the Soviet Union and policy towards Central American conflicts, such as backing the Contras in Nicaragua. [86] McCain opposed keeping U.S. Marines deployed in Lebanon, citing unattainable objectives, and subsequently criticized President Reagan for pulling out the troops too late in the interim, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing killed hundreds. [71] [87] McCain won re-election to the House easily in 1984, [71] and gained a spot on the House Foreign Affairs Committee. [88] In 1985, he made his first return trip to Vietnam, [89] and also traveled to Chile where he met with its military junta ruler, General Augusto Pinochet. [90] [91] [92]

                                                                                Growing family

                                                                                In 1984, McCain and Cindy had their first child, daughter Meghan, followed two years later by son John IV and in 1988 by son James. [93] In 1991, Cindy brought an abandoned three-month-old girl needing medical treatment to the U.S. from a Bangladeshi orphanage run by Mother Teresa. [94] The McCains decided to adopt her and she was named Bridget. [95]

                                                                                First two terms in the U.S. Senate

                                                                                McCain's Senate career began in January 1987, after he defeated his Democratic opponent, former state legislator Richard Kimball, by 20 percentage points in the 1986 election. [72] [96] McCain succeeded Arizona native, conservative icon, and the 1964 Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater upon Goldwater's retirement as U.S. senator from Arizona for 30 years. [96] In January 1988, McCain voted in favor of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, [97] and voted to override President Reagan's veto of that legislation the following March. [98]

                                                                                Senator McCain became a member of the Armed Services Committee, with which he had formerly done his Navy liaison work he also joined the Commerce Committee and the Indian Affairs Committee. [96] He continued to support the Native American agenda. [99] As first a House member and then a senator—and as a lifelong gambler with close ties to the gambling industry [100] —McCain was one of the main authors of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, [101] [102] which codified rules regarding Native American gambling enterprises. [103] McCain was also a strong supporter of the Gramm-Rudman legislation that enforced automatic spending cuts in the case of budget deficits. [104]

                                                                                McCain soon gained national visibility. He delivered a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention, was mentioned by the press as a short list vice-presidential running mate for Republican nominee George H. W. Bush, and was named chairman of Veterans for Bush. [96] [105]

                                                                                Keating Five

                                                                                McCain became embroiled in a scandal during the 1980s, as one of five United States senators comprising the so-called Keating Five. [106] Between 1982 and 1987, McCain had received $112,000 in lawful [107] political contributions from Charles Keating Jr. and his associates at Lincoln Savings and Loan Association, along with trips on Keating's jets [106] that McCain belatedly repaid, in 1989. [108] In 1987, McCain was one of the five senators whom Keating contacted in order to prevent the government's seizure of Lincoln, and McCain met twice with federal regulators to discuss the government's investigation of Lincoln. [106] In 1999, McCain said: "The appearance of it was wrong. It's a wrong appearance when a group of senators appear in a meeting with a group of regulators, because it conveys the impression of undue and improper influence. And it was the wrong thing to do." [109] In the end, McCain was cleared by the Senate Ethics Committee of acting improperly or violating any law or Senate rule, but was mildly rebuked for exercising "poor judgment". [107] [109] [110]

                                                                                In his 1992 re-election bid, the Keating Five affair was not a major issue, [111] and he won handily, gaining 56 percent of the vote to defeat Democratic community and civil rights activist Claire Sargent and independent former governor, Evan Mecham. [112]

                                                                                Political Independence

                                                                                McCain developed a reputation for independence during the 1990s. [113] He took pride in challenging party leadership and establishment forces, becoming difficult to categorize politically. [113]

                                                                                As a member of the 1991–1993 Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, chaired by fellow Vietnam War veteran and Democrat, John Kerry, McCain investigated the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, to determine the fate of U.S. service personnel listed as missing in action during the Vietnam War. [114] The committee's unanimous report stated there was "no compelling evidence that proves that any American remains alive in captivity in Southeast Asia." [115] Helped by McCain's efforts, in 1995 the U.S. normalized diplomatic relations with Vietnam. [116] McCain was vilified by some POW/MIA activists who, despite the committee's unanimous report, believed large numbers of Americans were still held against their will in Southeast Asia. [116] [117] [118] From January 1993 until his death, McCain was Chairman of the International Republican Institute, an organization partly funded by the U.S. government that supports the emergence of political democracy worldwide. [119]

                                                                                In 1993 and 1994, McCain voted to confirm President Clinton's nominees Stephen Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg whom he considered to be qualified for the U.S. Supreme Court. He later explained that "under our Constitution, it is the president's call to make." [120] McCain had also voted to confirm nominees of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, including Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. [121]

                                                                                Campaign Finance Reform

                                                                                McCain attacked what he saw as the corrupting influence of large political contributions—from corporations, labor unions, other organizations, and wealthy individuals—and he made this his signature issue. [122] Starting in 1994, he worked with Democratic Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold on campaign finance reform their McCain–Feingold bill attempted to put limits on "soft money". [122] The efforts of McCain and Feingold were opposed by some of the moneyed interests targeted, by incumbents in both parties, by those who felt spending limits impinged on free political speech and might be unconstitutional as well, and by those who wanted to counterbalance the power of what they saw as media bias. [122] [123] Despite sympathetic coverage in the media, initial versions of the McCain–Feingold Act were filibustered and never came to a vote. [124]

                                                                                The term "maverick Republican" became a label frequently applied to McCain, and he also used it himself. [122] [125] [126] In 1993, McCain opposed military operations in Somalia. [127] Another target of his was pork barrel spending by Congress, and he actively supported the Line Item Veto Act of 1996, which gave the president power to veto individual spending items [122] but was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1998. [128]

                                                                                In the 1996 presidential election, McCain was again on the short list of possible vice-presidential picks, this time for Republican nominee Bob Dole. [111] [129] The following year, Time magazine named McCain as one of the "25 Most Influential People in America". [130]

                                                                                In 1997, McCain became chairman of the powerful Senate Commerce Committee he was criticized for accepting funds from corporations and businesses under the committee's purview, but in response said the small contributions he received were not part of the big-money nature of the campaign finance problem. [122] McCain took on the tobacco industry in 1998, proposing legislation that would increase cigarette taxes in order to fund anti-smoking campaigns, discourage teenage smokers, increase money for health research studies, and help states pay for smoking-related health care costs. [122] [131] Supported by the Clinton administration but opposed by the industry and most Republicans, the bill failed to gain cloture. [131]

                                                                                Start of third term in the U.S. Senate

                                                                                In November 1998, McCain won re-election to a third Senate term he prevailed in a landslide over his Democratic opponent, environmental lawyer Ed Ranger. [122] In the February 1999 Senate trial following the impeachment of Bill Clinton, McCain voted to convict the president on both the perjury and obstruction of justice counts, saying Clinton had violated his sworn oath of office. [132] In March 1999, McCain voted to approve the NATO bombing campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, saying that the ongoing genocide of the Kosovo War must be stopped and criticizing past Clinton administration inaction. [133] Later in 1999, McCain shared the Profile in Courage Award with Feingold for their work in trying to enact their campaign finance reform, [134] although the bill was still failing repeated attempts to gain cloture. [124]

                                                                                In August 1999, McCain's memoir Faith of My Fathers, co-authored with Mark Salter, was published [135] a reviewer observed that its appearance "seems to have been timed to the unfolding Presidential campaign." [136] The most successful of his writings, it received positive reviews, [137] became a bestseller, [138] and was later made into a TV film. [139] The book traces McCain's family background and childhood, covers his time at Annapolis and his service before and during the Vietnam War, concluding with his release from captivity in 1973. According to one reviewer, it describes "the kind of challenges that most of us can barely imagine. It's a fascinating history of a remarkable military family." [140]

                                                                                McCain announced his candidacy for president on September 27, 1999, in Nashua, New Hampshire, saying he was staging "a fight to take our government back from the power brokers and special interests, and return it to the people and the noble cause of freedom it was created to serve". [135] [141] The frontrunner for the Republican nomination was Texas Governor George W. Bush, who had the political and financial support of most of the party establishment, whereas McCain was supported by many moderate Republicans and some conservative Republicans. [142]

                                                                                McCain focused on the New Hampshire primary, where his message appealed to independents. [143] He traveled on a campaign bus called the Straight Talk Express. [135] He held many town hall meetings, answering every question voters asked, in a successful example of "retail politics", and he used free media to compensate for his lack of funds. [135] One reporter later recounted that, "McCain talked all day long with reporters on his Straight Talk Express bus he talked so much that sometimes he said things that he shouldn't have, and that's why the media loved him." [144] On February 1, 2000, he won New Hampshire's primary with 49 percent of the vote to Bush's 30 percent. The Bush campaign and the Republican establishment feared that a McCain victory in the crucial South Carolina primary might give his campaign unstoppable momentum. [135] [145]

                                                                                The Arizona Republic wrote that the McCain–Bush primary contest in South Carolina "has entered national political lore as a low-water mark in presidential campaigns", while The New York Times called it "a painful symbol of the brutality of American politics". [135] [147] [148] A variety of interest groups, which McCain had challenged in the past, ran negative ads. [135] [149] Bush borrowed McCain's earlier language of reform, [150] and declined to dissociate himself from a veterans activist who accused McCain (in Bush's presence) of having "abandoned the veterans" on POW/MIA and Agent Orange issues. [135] [151]

                                                                                Incensed, [151] McCain ran ads accusing Bush of lying and comparing the governor to Bill Clinton, which Bush said was "about as low a blow as you can give in a Republican primary". [135] An anonymous smear campaign began against McCain, delivered by push polls, faxes, e-mails, flyers, and audience plants. [135] [152] The smears claimed that McCain had fathered a black child out of wedlock (the McCains' dark-skinned daughter was adopted from Bangladesh), that his wife Cindy was a drug addict, that he was a homosexual, and that he was a "Manchurian Candidate" who was either a traitor or mentally unstable from his North Vietnam POW days. [135] [147] The Bush campaign strongly denied any involvement with the attacks. [147] [153]

                                                                                McCain lost South Carolina on February 19, with 42 percent of the vote to Bush's 53 percent, [154] in part because Bush mobilized the state's evangelical voters [135] [155] and outspent McCain. [156] The win allowed Bush to regain lost momentum. [154] McCain said of the rumor spreaders, "I believe that there is a special place in hell for people like those." [95] According to one acquaintance, the South Carolina experience left him in a "very dark place". [147]

                                                                                McCain's campaign never completely recovered from his South Carolina defeat, although he did rebound partially by winning in Arizona and Michigan a few days later. [157] He made a speech in Virginia Beach that criticized Christian leaders, including Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell, as divisive conservatives, [147] declaring ". we embrace the fine members of the religious conservative community. But that does not mean that we will pander to their self-appointed leaders." [158] McCain lost the Virginia primary on February 29, [159] and on March 7 lost nine of the thirteen primaries on Super Tuesday to Bush. [160] With little hope of overcoming Bush's delegate lead, McCain withdrew from the race on March 9, 2000. [161] He endorsed Bush two months later, [162] and made occasional appearances with the Texas governor during the general election campaign. [135]

                                                                                Remainder of third Senate term

                                                                                McCain began 2001 by breaking with the new George W. Bush administration on a number of matters, including HMO reform, climate change, and gun control legislation McCain–Feingold was opposed by Bush as well. [124] [163] In May 2001, McCain was one of only two Senate Republicans to vote against the Bush tax cuts. [163] [164] Besides the differences with Bush on ideological grounds, there was considerable antagonism between the two remaining from the previous year's campaign. [165] [166] Later, when a Republican senator, Jim Jeffords, became an Independent, thereby throwing control of the Senate to the Democrats, McCain defended Jeffords against "self-appointed enforcers of party loyalty". [163] Indeed, there was speculation at the time, and in years since, about McCain himself leaving the Republican Party, but McCain had always adamantly denied that he ever considered doing so. [163] [167] [168] Beginning in 2001, McCain used political capital gained from his presidential run, as well as improved legislative skills and relationships with other members, to become one of the Senate's most influential members. [169]

                                                                                After the September 11, 2001, attacks, McCain supported Bush and the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan. [163] [170] He and Democratic senator Joe Lieberman wrote the legislation that created the 9/11 Commission, [171] while he and Democratic senator Fritz Hollings co-sponsored the Aviation and Transportation Security Act that federalized airport security. [172]

                                                                                In March 2002, McCain–Feingold, officially known as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, passed in both Houses of Congress and was signed into law by President Bush. [124] [163] Seven years in the making, it was McCain's greatest legislative achievement. [163] [173]

                                                                                Meanwhile, in discussions over proposed U.S. action against Iraq, McCain was a strong supporter of the Bush administration's position. [163] He stated that Iraq was "a clear and present danger to the United States of America", and voted accordingly for the Iraq War Resolution in October 2002. [163] He predicted that U.S. forces would be treated as liberators by a large number of the Iraqi people. [174] In May 2003, McCain voted against the second round of Bush tax cuts, saying it was unwise at a time of war. [164] By November 2003, after a trip to Iraq, he was publicly questioning Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, saying that more U.S. troops were needed the following year, McCain announced that he had lost confidence in Rumsfeld. [175] [176]

                                                                                In October 2003, McCain and Lieberman co-sponsored the Climate Stewardship Act that would have introduced a cap and trade system aimed at returning greenhouse gas emissions to 2000 levels the bill was defeated with 55 votes to 43 in the Senate. [177] They reintroduced modified versions of the Act two additional times, for the final time in January 2007 with the co-sponsorship of Barack Obama, among others. [178]

                                                                                In the 2004 U.S. presidential election campaign, McCain was once again frequently mentioned for the vice-presidential slot, only this time as part of the Democratic ticket under nominee John Kerry. [179] [180] [181] McCain said that Kerry had never formally offered him the position and that he would not have accepted it if he had. [180] [181] [182] At the 2004 Republican National Convention, McCain supported Bush for re-election, praising Bush's management of the War on Terror since the September 11 attacks. [183] At the same time, he defended Kerry's Vietnam War record. [184] By August 2004, McCain had the best favorable-to-unfavorable rating (55 percent to 19 percent) of any national politician [183] he campaigned for Bush much more than he had four years previously, though the two remained situational allies rather than friends. [165]

                                                                                McCain was also up for re-election as senator, in 2004. He defeated little-known Democratic schoolteacher Stuart Starky with his biggest margin of victory, garnering 77 percent of the vote. [185]

                                                                                Start of fourth Senate term

                                                                                In May 2005, McCain led the so-called Gang of 14 in the Senate, which established a compromise that preserved the ability of senators to filibuster judicial nominees, but only in "extraordinary circumstances". [186] The compromise took the steam out of the filibuster movement, but some Republicans remained disappointed that the compromise did not eliminate filibusters of judicial nominees in all circumstances. [187] McCain subsequently cast Supreme Court confirmation votes in favor of John Roberts and Samuel Alito, calling them "two of the finest justices ever appointed to the United States Supreme Court." [121]

                                                                                Breaking from his 2001 and 2003 votes, McCain supported the Bush tax cut extension in May 2006, saying not to do so would amount to a tax increase. [164] Working with Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy, McCain was a strong proponent of comprehensive immigration reform, which would involve legalization, guest worker programs, and border enforcement components. The Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act was never voted on in 2005, while the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 passed the Senate in May 2006 but failed in the House. [176] In June 2007, President Bush, McCain, and others made the strongest push yet for such a bill, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, but it aroused intense grassroots opposition among talk radio listeners and others, some of whom furiously characterized the proposal as an "amnesty" program, [188] and the bill twice failed to gain cloture in the Senate. [189]

                                                                                By the middle of the 2000s (decade), the increased Indian gaming that McCain had helped bring about was a $23 billion industry. [102] He was twice chairman of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee, in 1995–1997 and 2005–2007, and his Committee helped expose the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal. [190] [191] By 2005 and 2006, McCain was pushing for amendments to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act which would have limited creation of off-reservation casinos, [102] and also limited the movement of tribes across state lines to build casinos. [192]

                                                                                Owing to his time as a POW, McCain was recognized for his sensitivity to the detention and interrogation of detainees in the War on Terror. An opponent of the Bush administration's use of torture and detention without trial at Guantánamo Bay, saying: "some of these guys are terrible, terrible killers and the worst kind of scum of humanity. But, one, they deserve to have some adjudication of their cases . even Adolf Eichmann got a trial". [193] In October 2005, McCain introduced the McCain Detainee Amendment to the Defense Appropriations bill for 2005, and the Senate voted 90–9 to support the amendment. [194] It prohibits inhumane treatment of prisoners, including prisoners at Guantánamo, by confining military interrogations to the techniques in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Interrogation. Although Bush had threatened to veto the bill if McCain's amendment was included, [195] the President announced in December 2005 that he accepted McCain's terms and would "make it clear to the world that this government does not torture and that we adhere to the international convention of torture, whether it be here at home or abroad". [196] This stance, among others, led to McCain being named by Time magazine in 2006 as one of America's 10 Best Senators. [197] McCain voted in February 2008 against a bill containing a ban on waterboarding, [198] which provision was later narrowly passed and vetoed by Bush. However, the bill in question contained other provisions to which McCain objected, and his spokesman stated: "This wasn't a vote on waterboarding. This was a vote on applying the standards of the [Army] field manual to CIA personnel." [198]

                                                                                Meanwhile, McCain continued questioning the progress of the war in Iraq. In September 2005, he remarked upon Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Richard Myers' optimistic outlook on the war's progress: "Things have not gone as well as we had planned or expected, nor as we were told by you, General Myers." [199] In August 2006, he criticized the administration for continually understating the effectiveness of the insurgency: "We [have] not told the American people how tough and difficult this could be." [176] From the beginning, McCain strongly supported the Iraq troop surge of 2007. [200] The strategy's opponents labeled it "McCain's plan" [201] and University of Virginia political science professor Larry Sabato said, "McCain owns Iraq just as much as Bush does now." [176] The surge and the war were unpopular during most of the year, even within the Republican Party, [202] as McCain's presidential campaign was underway faced with the consequences, McCain frequently responded, "I would much rather lose a campaign than a war." [203] In March 2008, McCain credited the surge strategy with reducing violence in Iraq, as he made his eighth trip to that country since the war began. [204]

                                                                                McCain formally announced his intention to run for President of the United States on April 25, 2007, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. [205] He stated that: "I'm not running for president to be somebody, but to do something to do the hard but necessary things, not the easy and needless things." [206]

                                                                                McCain's oft-cited strengths as a presidential candidate for 2008 included national name recognition, sponsorship of major lobbying and campaign finance reform initiatives, his ability to reach across the aisle, his well-known military service and experience as a POW, his experience from the 2000 presidential campaign, and an expectation that he would capture Bush's top fundraisers. [207] During the 2006 election cycle, McCain had attended 346 events [63] and helped raise more than $10.5 million on behalf of Republican candidates. McCain also became more willing to ask business and industry for campaign contributions, while maintaining that such contributions would not affect any official decisions he would make. [208] Despite being considered the front-runner for the nomination by pundits as 2007 began, [209] McCain was in second place behind former Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani in national Republican polls as the year progressed.

                                                                                McCain had fundraising problems in the first half of 2007, due in part to his support for the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, which was unpopular among the Republican base electorate. [210] [211] Large-scale campaign staff downsizing took place in early July, but McCain said that he was not considering dropping out of the race. [211] Later that month, the candidate's campaign manager and campaign chief strategist both departed. [212] McCain slumped badly in national polls, often running third or fourth with 15 percent or less support.

                                                                                The Arizona senator subsequently resumed his familiar position as a political underdog, [213] riding the Straight Talk Express and taking advantage of free media such as debates and sponsored events. [214] By December 2007, the Republican race was unsettled, with none of the top-tier candidates dominating the race and all of them possessing major vulnerabilities with different elements of the Republican base electorate. [215] McCain was showing a resurgence, in particular with renewed strength in New Hampshire—the scene of his 2000 triumph—and was bolstered further by the endorsements of The Boston Globe, the New Hampshire Union Leader, and almost two dozen other state newspapers, [216] as well as from Senator Lieberman (now an Independent Democrat). [217] [218] McCain decided not to campaign significantly in the January 3, 2008, Iowa caucuses, which saw a win by former Governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee.

                                                                                McCain's comeback plan paid off when he won the New Hampshire primary on January 8, defeating former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney in a close contest, to once again become one of the front-runners in the race. [219] In mid-January, McCain placed first in the South Carolina primary, narrowly defeating Mike Huckabee. [220] Pundits credited the third-place finisher, Tennessee's former U.S. Senator Fred Thompson, with drawing votes from Huckabee in South Carolina, thereby giving a narrow win to McCain. [221] A week later, McCain won the Florida primary, [222] beating Romney again in a close contest Giuliani then dropped out and endorsed McCain. [223]

                                                                                On February 5, McCain won both the majority of states and delegates in the Super Tuesday Republican primaries, giving him a commanding lead toward the Republican nomination. Romney departed from the race on February 7. [224] McCain's wins in the March 4 primaries clinched a majority of the delegates, and he became the presumptive Republican nominee. [225]

                                                                                McCain was born in the Panama Canal Zone. Had he been elected, he would have become the first president who was born outside the contiguous forty-eight states. This raised a potential legal issue, since the United States Constitution requires the president to be a natural-born citizen of the United States. A bipartisan legal review, [226] and a unanimous but non-binding Senate resolution, [227] both concluded that he was a natural-born citizen. If inaugurated in 2009 at the age of 72 years and 144 days, he would have been the oldest person to become president. [228]

                                                                                McCain addressed concerns about his age and past health issues, stating in 2005 that his health was "excellent". [229] He had been treated for melanoma and an operation in 2000 for that condition left a noticeable mark on the left side of his face. [230] McCain's prognosis appeared favorable, according to independent experts, especially because he had already survived without a recurrence for more than seven years. [230] In May 2008, McCain's campaign briefly let the press review his medical records, and he was described as appearing cancer-free, having a strong heart, and in general being in good health. [231]

                                                                                McCain clinched enough delegates for the nomination and his focus shifted toward the general election, while Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton fought a prolonged battle for the Democratic nomination. [232] McCain introduced various policy proposals, and sought to improve his fundraising. [233] [234] Cindy McCain, who accounted for most of the couple's wealth with an estimated net worth of $100 million, [74] made part of her tax returns public in May. [235] After facing criticism about lobbyists on staff, the McCain campaign issued new rules in May 2008 to avoid conflicts of interest, causing five top aides to leave. [236] [237]

                                                                                When Obama became the Democrats' presumptive nominee in early June, McCain proposed joint town hall meetings, but Obama instead requested more traditional debates for the fall. [238] In July, a staff shake-up put Steve Schmidt in full operational control of the McCain campaign. [239] Rick Davis remained as campaign manager but with a reduced role. Davis had also managed McCain's 2000 presidential campaign in 2005 and 2006, U.S. intelligence warned McCain's Senate staff about Davis's Russian links but gave no further warnings. [240] [241] [242] [243]

                                                                                Throughout the summer of 2008, Obama typically led McCain in national polls by single-digit margins, [244] and also led in several key swing states. [245] McCain reprised his familiar underdog role, which was due at least in part to the overall challenges Republicans faced in the election year. [213] [245] McCain accepted public financing for the general election campaign, and the restrictions that go with it, while criticizing his Democratic opponent for becoming the first major party candidate to opt out of such financing for the general election since the system was implemented in 1976. [246] [247] The Republican's broad campaign theme focused on his experience and ability to lead, compared to Obama's. [248]

                                                                                On August 29, 2008, McCain revealed Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his surprise choice for a running mate. [249] McCain was only the second U.S. major-party presidential nominee (after Walter Mondale, who chose Geraldine Ferraro) to select a woman as his running mate and the first Republican to do so. On September 3, 2008, McCain and Palin became the Republican Party's presidential and vice presidential nominees at the 2008 Republican National Convention in Saint Paul, Minnesota. McCain surged ahead of Obama in national polls following the convention, as the Palin pick energized core Republican voters who had previously been wary of him. [250] However, by the campaign's own later admission, the rollout of Palin to the national media went poorly, [251] and voter reactions to Palin grew increasingly negative, especially among independents and other voters concerned about her qualifications. [252]

                                                                                McCain's decision to choose Sarah Palin as his running mate was criticized New York Times journalist David Brooks said that "he took a disease that was running through the Republican party – anti-intellectualism, disrespect for facts – and he put it right at the centre of the party". [253] Laura McGann in Vox says that McCain gave the "reality TV politics" and Tea Party movement more political legitimacy, as well as solidifying "the Republican Party's comfort with a candidate who would say absurdities . unleashing a political style and a values system that animated the Tea Party movement and laid the groundwork for a Trump presidency." [254] Although McCain later expressed regret for not choosing the independent Senator Joe Lieberman (who had previously been Al Gore's running mate in 2000, while still elected as a Democrat) as his VP candidate instead, he consistently defended Palin's performances at his events. [255]

                                                                                On September 24, McCain said he was temporarily suspending his campaign activities, called on Obama to join him, and proposed delaying the first of the general election debates with Obama, in order to work on the proposed U.S. financial system bailout before Congress, which was targeted at addressing the subprime mortgage crisis and the financial crisis of 2007–2008. [256] [257] McCain's intervention helped to give dissatisfied House Republicans an opportunity to propose changes to the plan that was otherwise close to agreement. [258] [259] After Obama declined McCain's suspension suggestion, McCain went ahead with the debate on September 26. [260] On October 1, McCain voted in favor of a revised $700 billion rescue plan. [261] Another debate was held on October 7 like the first one, polls afterward suggested that Obama had won it. [262] A final presidential debate occurred on October 15. [263] Down the stretch, McCain was outspent by Obama by a four-to-one margin. [264]

                                                                                During and after the final debate, McCain compared Obama's proposed policies to socialism and often invoked "Joe the Plumber" as a symbol of American small business dreams that would be thwarted by an Obama presidency. [265] [266] He barred using the Jeremiah Wright controversy in ads against Obama, [267] but the campaign did frequently criticize Obama regarding his purported relationship with Bill Ayers. [268] His rallies became increasingly vitriolic, [269] with attendees denigrating Obama and displaying a growing anti-Muslim and anti-African-American sentiment. [270] During a campaign rally in Minnesota, Gayle Quinnell, a McCain supporter, told him she did not trust Obama because "he's an Arab". [271] McCain replied, "No ma'am. He's a decent family man, citizen, that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues." [270] McCain's response was considered one of the finer moments of the campaign and was still being viewed several years later as a marker for civility in American politics, particularly in light of the anti-Muslim and anti-immigrant animus of the Donald Trump presidency. [269] [272] Meghan McCain said that she cannot "go a day without someone bringing up (that) moment," and noted that at the time "there were a lot of people really trying to get my dad to go (against Obama) with . you're a Muslim, you're not an American aspect of that," but that her father had refused. "I can remember thinking that it was a morally amazing and beautiful moment, but that maybe there would be people in the Republican Party that would be quite angry," she said. [273]

                                                                                The election took place on November 4, and Barack Obama was declared the projected winner at about 11:00 pm Eastern Standard Time McCain delivered his concession speech in Phoenix, Arizona about twenty minutes later. [274] In it, he noted the historic and special significance of Obama being elected the nation's first African American president. [274] In the end, McCain won 173 electoral votes to Obama's 365 [275] McCain failed to win most of the battleground states and lost some traditionally Republican ones. [276] McCain gained 46 percent of the nationwide popular vote, compared to Obama's 53 percent. [276]

                                                                                Remainder of fourth Senate term

                                                                                Following his defeat, McCain returned to the Senate amid varying views about what role he might play there. [277] In mid-November 2008 he met with President-elect Obama, and the two discussed issues they had commonality on. [278] Around the same time, McCain indicated that he intended to run for re-election to his Senate seat in 2010. [279] As the inauguration neared, Obama consulted with McCain on a variety of matters, to an extent rarely seen between a president-elect and his defeated rival, [280] and President Obama's inauguration speech contained an allusion to McCain's theme of finding a purpose greater than oneself. [281]

                                                                                Nevertheless, McCain emerged as a leader of the Republican opposition to the Obama economic stimulus package of 2009, saying it incorporated federal policy changes that had nothing to do with near-term job creation and would expand the growing federal budget deficit. [282] McCain also voted against Obama's Supreme Court nomination of Sonia Sotomayor—saying that while undeniably qualified, "I do not believe that she shares my belief in judicial restraint" [283] —and by August 2009 was siding more often with his Republican Party on closely divided votes than ever before in his senatorial career. [284] McCain reasserted that the War in Afghanistan was winnable [285] and criticized Obama for a slow process in deciding whether to send additional U.S. troops there. [286]

                                                                                McCain also harshly criticized Obama for scrapping construction of the U.S. missile defense complex in Poland, declined to enter negotiations over climate change legislation similar to what he had proposed in the past, and strongly opposed the Obama health care plan. [286] [287] McCain led a successful filibuster of a measure that would allow repeal of the military's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy towards gays. [288] Factors involved in McCain's new direction included Senate staffers leaving, a renewed concern over national debt levels and the scope of federal government, a possible Republican primary challenge from conservatives in 2010, and McCain's campaign edge being slow to wear off. [286] [287] As one longtime McCain advisor said, "A lot of people, including me, thought he might be the Republican building bridges to the Obama Administration. But he's been more like the guy blowing up the bridges." [286]

                                                                                In early 2010, a primary challenge from radio talk show host and former U.S. Congressman J. D. Hayworth materialized in the 2010 U.S. Senate election in Arizona and drew support from some but not all elements of the Tea Party movement. [289] [290] With Hayworth using the campaign slogan "The Consistent Conservative", McCain said—despite his own past use of the term on a number of occasions [290] [291] —"I never considered myself a maverick. I consider myself a person who serves the people of Arizona to the best of his abilities." [292] The primary challenge coincided with McCain reversing or muting his stance on some issues such as the bank bailouts, closing of the Guantánamo Bay detention camp, campaign finance restrictions, and gays in the military. [289]

                                                                                When the health care plan, now called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, passed Congress and became law in March 2010, McCain strongly opposed the landmark legislation not only on its merits but also on the way it had been handled in Congress. As a consequence, he warned that congressional Republicans would not work with Democrats on anything else: "There will be no cooperation for the rest of the year. They have poisoned the well in what they've done and how they've done it." [293] McCain became a vocal defender of Arizona SB 1070, the April 2010 tough anti-illegal immigration state law that aroused national controversy, saying that the state had been forced to take action given the federal government's inability to control the border. [290] [294] In the August 24 primary, McCain beat Hayworth by a 56 to 32 percent margin. [295] McCain proceeded to easily defeat Democratic Tucson city councilman Rodney Glassman in the general election. [296]

                                                                                In the lame duck session of the 111th Congress, McCain voted for the compromise Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, [297] but against the DREAM Act (which he had once sponsored) and the New START Treaty. [298] Most prominently, he continued to lead the eventually losing fight against "Don't ask, don't tell" repeal. [299] In his opposition, he sometimes fell into anger or hostility on the Senate floor, and called its passage "a very sad day" that would compromise the battle effectiveness of the military. [298] [299]

                                                                                Fifth Senate term

                                                                                While control of the House of Representatives went over to the Republicans in the 112th Congress, the Senate stayed Democratic and McCain continued to be the ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. As the Arab Spring took center stage, McCain urged that the embattled Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, step down and thought the U.S. should push for democratic reforms in the region despite the associated risks of religious extremists gaining power. [300] McCain was an especially vocal supporter of the 2011 military intervention in Libya. In April of that year he visited the Anti-Gaddafi forces and National Transitional Council in Benghazi, the highest-ranking American to do so, and said that the rebel forces were "my heroes". [301] In June, he joined with Senator Kerry in offering a resolution that would have authorized the military intervention, and said: "The administration's disregard for the elected representatives of the American people on this matter has been troubling and counterproductive." [302] [303] In August, McCain voted for the Budget Control Act of 2011 that resolved the U.S. debt ceiling crisis. [304] In November, McCain and Senator Carl Levin were leaders in efforts to codify in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 that terrorism suspects, no matter where captured, could be detained by the U.S. military and its tribunal system following objections by civil libertarians, some Democrats, and the White House, McCain and Levin agreed to language making it clear that the bill would not pertain to U.S. citizens. [305] [306]

                                                                                In the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, McCain endorsed former 2008 rival Mitt Romney and campaigned for him, but compared the contest to a Greek tragedy due to its drawn-out nature with massive super PAC-funded attack ads damaging all the contenders. [307] He labeled the Supreme Court's 2010 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision as "uninformed, arrogant, naïve", and, decrying its effects and the future scandals he thought it would bring, said it would become considered the court's "worst decision . in the 21st century". [308] McCain took the lead in opposing the defense spending sequestrations brought on by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and gained attention for defending State Department aide Huma Abedin against charges brought by a few House Republicans that she had ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. [309]

                                                                                McCain continued to be one of the most frequently appearing guests on the Sunday morning news talk shows. [309] He became one of the most vocal critics of the Obama administration's handling of the September 11, 2012, attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, saying it was a "debacle" that featured either "a massive cover-up or incompetence that is not acceptable" and that it was worse than the Watergate scandal. [311] As an outgrowth of this strong opposition, he and a few other senators were successful in blocking the planned nomination of Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice to succeed Hillary Rodham Clinton as U.S. Secretary of State McCain's friend and colleague John Kerry was nominated instead. [312]

                                                                                Regarding the Syrian civil war that had begun in 2011, McCain repeatedly argued for the U.S. intervening militarily in the conflict on the side of the anti-government forces. He staged a visit to rebel forces inside Syria in May 2013, the first senator to do so, and called for arming the Free Syrian Army with heavy weapons and for the establishment of a no-fly zone over the country. Following reports that two of the people he posed for pictures with had been responsible for the kidnapping of eleven Lebanese Shiite pilgrims the year before, McCain disputed one of the identifications and said he had not met directly with the other. [313] Following the 2013 Ghouta chemical weapons attack, McCain argued again for strong American military action against the government of the Syrian president, Bashar al-Assad, and in September 2013 cast a Foreign Relations committee vote in favor of Obama's request to Congress that it authorize a military response. [314] McCain took the lead in criticizing a growing non-interventionist movement within the Republican Party, exemplified by his March 2013 comment that Senators Rand Paul and Ted Cruz and Representative Justin Amash were "wacko birds". [315]

                                                                                During 2013, McCain was a member of a bi-partisan group of senators, the "Gang of Eight", which announced principles for another try at comprehensive immigration reform. [316] The resulting Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 passed the Senate by a 68–32 margin, but faced an uncertain future in the House. [317] In July 2013, McCain was at the forefront of an agreement among senators to drop filibusters against Obama administration executive nominees without Democrats resorting to the "nuclear option" that would disallow such filibusters altogether. [318] [319] However, the option would be imposed later in the year anyway, to the senator's displeasure. [320] These developments and some other negotiations showed that McCain now had improved relations with the Obama administration, including the president himself, as well as with Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, and that he had become the leader of a power center in the Senate for cutting deals in an otherwise bitterly partisan environment. [321] [322] [323] They also led some observers to conclude that the "maverick" McCain had returned. [319] [323]

                                                                                McCain was publicly skeptical about the Republican strategy that precipitated the U.S. federal government shutdown of 2013 and U.S. debt-ceiling crisis of 2013 in order to defund or delay the Affordable Care Act in October 2013 he voted in favor of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, which resolved them and said, "Republicans have to understand we have lost this battle, as I predicted weeks ago, that we would not be able to win because we were demanding something that was not achievable." [324] Similarly, he was one of nine Republican senators who voted for the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 at the end of the year. [325] By early 2014, McCain's apostasies were enough that the Arizona Republican Party formally censured him for having what they saw as a liberal record that had been "disastrous and harmful". [326] McCain remained stridently opposed to many aspects of Obama's foreign policy, however, and in June 2014, following major gains by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive, decried what he saw as a U.S. failure to protect its past gains in Iraq and called on the president's entire national security team to resign. McCain said, "Could all this have been avoided? . The answer is absolutely yes. If I sound angry it's because I am angry." [327]

                                                                                McCain was a supporter of the Euromaidan protests against Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and his government, and appeared in Independence Square in Kyiv in December 2013. [328] Following the overthrow of Yanukovych and subsequent 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, McCain became a vocal supporter of providing arms to Ukrainian military forces, saying the sanctions imposed against Russia were not enough. [329] In 2014, McCain led the opposition to the appointments of Colleen Bell, Noah Mamet, and George Tsunis to the ambassadorships in Hungary, Argentina, and Norway, respectively, arguing they were unqualified appointees being rewarded for their political fundraising. [330] Unlike many Republicans, McCain supported the release and contents of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture in December 2014, saying "The truth is sometimes a hard pill to swallow. It sometimes causes us difficulties at home and abroad. It is sometimes used by our enemies in attempts to hurt us. But the American people are entitled to it, nonetheless." [331] He added that the CIA's practices following the September 11 attacks had "stained our national honor" while doing "much harm and little practical good" and that "Our enemies act without conscience. We must not." [332] He opposed the Obama administration's December 2014 decision to normalize relations with Cuba. [333]

                                                                                The 114th United States Congress assembled in January 2015 with Republicans in control of the Senate, and McCain achieved one of his longtime goals when he became chairman of the Armed Services Committee. [334] In this position, he led the writing of proposed Senate legislation that sought to modify parts of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 in order to return responsibility for major weapons systems acquisition back to the individual armed services and their secretaries and away from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. [335] As chair, McCain tried to maintain a bipartisan approach and forged a good relationship with ranking member Jack Reed. [334] In April 2015, McCain announced that he would run for a sixth term in Arizona's 2016 Senate election. [336] While there was still conservative and Tea Party anger at him, it was unclear if they would mount an effective primary challenge against him. [337] During 2015, McCain strongly opposed the Obama administration's proposed comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear program (later finalized as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)), saying that Secretary of State Kerry was "delusional" and "giv[ing] away the store" in negotiations with Iran. [338] McCain supported the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, [339] saying: "I'm sure civilians die in war. Not nearly as many as the Houthis have executed." [340]

                                                                                McCain accused President Obama of being "directly responsible" for the Orlando nightclub shooting "because when he pulled everybody out of Iraq, al-Qaeda went to Syria, became ISIS, and ISIS is what it is today thanks to Barack Obama's failures." [341] [342]

                                                                                During the 2016 Republican primaries, McCain said he would support the Republican nominee even if it was Donald Trump, but following Mitt Romney's 2016 anti-Trump speech, McCain endorsed the sentiments expressed in that speech, saying he had serious concerns about Trump's "uninformed and indeed dangerous statements on national security issues". [343] Relations between the two had been fraught since early in Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, when McCain referred to a room full of Trump supporters as "crazies", and the real estate mogul then said of McCain: "He insulted me, and he insulted everyone in that room . He is a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren't captured . perhaps he was a war hero, but right now he's said a lot of very bad things about a lot of people." [343] [344] McCain also vocally opposed a federal loan guarantee for a development project Trump was contemplating on the West Side of Manhattan in 1996. [345] Following Trump becoming the presumptive nominee of the party on May 3, McCain said that Republican voters had spoken and he would support Trump. [346]

                                                                                McCain himself faced a primary challenge from Kelli Ward, a fervent Trump supporter, and then was expected to face a potentially strong challenge from Democratic Congresswoman Ann Kirkpatrick in the general election. [347] The senator privately expressed worry over the effect that Trump's unpopularity among Hispanic voters might have on his own chances but also was concerned with more conservative pro-Trump voters he thus kept his endorsement of Trump in place but tried to speak of him as little as possible given their disagreements. [348] [349] [350] However McCain defeated Ward in the primary by a double-digit percentage point margin and gained a similar lead over Kirkpatrick in general election polls, and when the Donald Trump Access Hollywood controversy broke, he felt secure enough to on October 8 withdraw his endorsement of Trump. [347] McCain stated that Trump's "demeaning comments about women and his boasts about sexual assaults" made it "impossible to continue to offer even conditional support" and added that he would not vote for Hillary Clinton, but would instead "write in the name of some good conservative Republican who is qualified to be president." [351] [352] McCain, at 80 years of age, went on to defeat Kirkpatrick, securing a sixth term as United States Senator from Arizona. [353]

                                                                                In November 2016, McCain learned of the existence of a dossier regarding the Trump presidential campaign's links to Russia compiled by Christopher Steele. McCain sent a representative to gather more information, who obtained a copy of the dossier. [354] In December 2016, McCain passed on the dossier to FBI Director James Comey in a 1-on-1 meeting. McCain later wrote that he felt the dossier's "allegations were disturbing" but unverifiable by himself, so he let the FBI investigate. [355]

                                                                                On December 31, 2016, in Tbilisi, Georgia, McCain stated that the United States should strengthen its sanctions against Russia. [356] One year later, on December 23, 2017, the State Department announced that the United States would provide Ukraine with "enhanced defensive capabilities". [357]

                                                                                Sixth and final Senate term

                                                                                McCain chaired the January 5, 2017, hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee where Republican and Democratic senators and intelligence officers, including James R. Clapper Jr., the Director of National Intelligence, Michael S. Rogers, the head of the National Security Agency and United States Cyber Command presented a "united front" that "forcefully reaffirmed the conclusion that the Russian government used hacking and leaks to try to influence the presidential election." [359]

                                                                                In June 2017, McCain voted to support President Trump's controversial arms deal with Saudi Arabia. [360] [361]

                                                                                Repeal and replacement of Obamacare (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) was a centerpiece of McCain's 2016 re-election campaign, [362] and in July 2017, he said, "Have no doubt: Congress must replace Obamacare, which has hit Arizonans with some of the highest premium increases in the nation and left 14 of Arizona's 15 counties with only one provider option on the exchanges this year." He added that he supports affordable and quality health care, but objected that the pending Senate bill did not do enough to shield the Medicaid system in Arizona. [363]

                                                                                In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, McCain said that "this is only the latest example of Communist China's assault on human rights, democracy, and freedom." [364]

                                                                                In September 2017, as the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar became ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya Muslim minority, McCain announced moves to scrap planned future military cooperation with Myanmar. [365]

                                                                                In October 2017, McCain praised President Trump's decision to decertify Iran's compliance with the Iran nuclear deal (JCPOA) while not yet withdrawing the U.S. from the agreement, saying that the Obama-era policy failed "to meet the multifaceted threat Iran poses. The goals President Trump presented in his speech today are a welcomed long overdue change." [366]

                                                                                Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery

                                                                                On July 14, 2017, McCain underwent a minimally invasive craniotomy at Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, in order to remove a blood clot above his left eye. His absence prompted Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell to delay a vote on the Better Care Reconciliation Act. [367] Five days later, Mayo Clinic doctors announced that the laboratory results from the surgery confirmed the presence of a glioblastoma, which is a very aggressive cancerous brain tumor. [368] Standard treatment options for this tumor include chemotherapy and radiation, although even with treatment, average survival time is approximately 14 months. [368] McCain was a survivor of previous cancers, including melanoma. [230] [369]

                                                                                President Donald Trump publicly wished Senator McCain well, [370] as did many others, including former President Obama. [371] On July 19, McCain's senatorial office issued a statement that he "appreciates the outpouring of support he has received over the last few days. He is in good spirits as he continues to recover at home with his family in Arizona. He is grateful to the doctors and staff at Mayo Clinic for their outstanding care, and is confident that any future treatment will be effective." On July 24, McCain announced via Twitter that he would return to the United States Senate the following day. [372]

                                                                                Return to the Senate

                                                                                McCain returned to the Senate on July 25, less than two weeks after brain surgery. He cast a deciding vote allowing the Senate to begin consideration of bills to replace the Affordable Care Act. Along with that vote, he delivered a speech criticizing the party-line voting process used by the Republicans, as well as by the Democrats in passing the Affordable Care Act to begin with, and McCain also urged a "return to regular order" utilizing the usual committee hearings and deliberations. [373] [374] [375] On July 28, he cast the decisive vote against the Republicans' final proposal that month, the so-called "skinny repeal" option, which failed 49–51. [376] McCain supported the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.

                                                                                McCain did not vote in the Senate after December 2017, remaining instead in Arizona to undergo cancer treatment. On April 15, 2018, he underwent surgery for an infection relating to diverticulitis and the following day was reported to be in stable condition. [377]

                                                                                Committee assignments

                                                                                • Committee on Armed Services (Chair)
                                                                                  • as chair of the full committee may serve as an ex-officio member of any subcommittee

                                                                                  Caucus memberships

                                                                                  On August 24, 2018, five days before his 82nd birthday, McCain's family announced that he would no longer receive treatment for his cancer. [380] He died the following day at 4:28 p.m. MST (23:28 UTC), with his wife and family beside him, at his home in Cornville, Arizona. [381] [382]

                                                                                  McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix on August 29, which would have been his 82nd birthday. This was followed by a service at North Phoenix Baptist Church on August 30. His remains were then moved to Washington, D.C. to lie in state in the rotunda of the United States Capitol [383] on August 31, which was followed by a service at the Washington National Cathedral on September 1. He was a "lifelong Episcopalian" who attended, but did not join, a Southern Baptist church for at least 17 years memorial services were scheduled in both denominations. [384] [385] Prior to his death, McCain requested that former Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama deliver eulogies at his funeral, and asked that both President Donald Trump and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin not attend any of the services. [386] [387] McCain himself planned the funeral arrangements and selected his pallbearers for the service in Washington the pallbearers included former Vice President Joe Biden, former Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold, former Secretary of Defense William Cohen, actor Warren Beatty, and Russian dissident Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza. [388]

                                                                                  Dignitaries who gave eulogies at the Memorial Service in Washington National Cathedral included Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Henry Kissinger, Joe Lieberman, and his daughter Meghan McCain. The New Yorker described the service as the biggest meeting of anti-Trump figures during his presidency. [392]

                                                                                  Many American political figures paid tribute at the funeral. Those who attended included former United States Presidents Obama, Bush, Clinton, Carter First Ladies Michelle, Laura, Hillary, Rosalyn and former Vice Presidents Biden, Cheney, Gore, and Quayle. Former President George H.W. Bush (who died 3 months and 5 days after McCain) was too ill to attend the service, and President Trump was not invited. Many figures from political life, both current and former and from both political parties, attended. Figures included John F. Kelly, Jim Mattis, Bob Dole, Madeleine Albright, John Kerry, Mitch McConnell, Paul Ryan, Nancy Pelosi, Chuck Schumer, Mitt Romney, Lindsey Graham, Jeff Flake, Elizabeth Warren, and Jon Huntsman. President Trump's daughter and son-in-law Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner attended to the displeasure of Meghan McCain. [393] Journalists Carl Bernstein, Tom Brokaw, and Charlie Rose, as well as actors Warren Beatty and Annette Bening and comedians Jay Leno and Joy Behar also attended the funeral. [394]

                                                                                  On September 2, the funeral cortege traveled from Washington, D.C. through Annapolis, Maryland, where the streets were lined with crowds of onlookers, to the Naval Academy. [395] A private service was held at the Naval Academy Chapel, attended by the brigade of midshipmen and McCain's classmates. After the chapel service, McCain was buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery, next to his Naval Academy classmate and lifelong friend Admiral Charles R. Larson. [396]

                                                                                  Many celebrities paid tribute to the late Senator on Twitter. Those included, Tom Hanks who tweeted "Duty. Honor. Country. Our nation thanks you, John McCain. There has been no finer son of America". Whoopi Goldberg, Ellen DeGeneres, Reese Witherspoon, Jimmy Kimmel, and Khloe Kardashian also tweeted out remembrances of the late Senator. [397]

                                                                                  Arizona Governor Doug Ducey was empowered to appoint McCain's interim replacement until a special election is held in 2020 to determine who is to serve out the remainder of McCain's term, which ends in January 2023 and thus appointed the then former Arizona U.S. Senator Jon Kyl to fill the vacancy. [398] [399] Under Arizona law, the appointed replacement must be of the same party as McCain, a Republican. [400] Newspaper speculation about potential appointees has included McCain's widow Cindy, former Senator Jon Kyl, and former Representatives Matt Salmon and John Shadegg. [401] [402] Ducey said that he would not make a formal appointment until after McCain's final funeral and burial on September 4, two days after McCain was buried, Ducey appointed Kyl to fill McCain's seat. [403] [404]


                                                                                  McCain received many tributes and condolences, including from Congressional colleagues, all living former presidents – Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama – and future president Joe Biden, as well as Vice President Mike Pence and President Richard Nixon's daughters Tricia Nixon Cox and Julie Nixon Eisenhower. [405] [406] [407] [408] French President Emmanuel Macron, Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko and Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who had just taken office the previous day, and former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, British Prime Minister Theresa May and former Prime Minister David Cameron, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and former Prime Minister Stephen Harper, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and foreign minister Heiko Maas, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Afghanistan chief executive Abdullah Abdullah, Pakistani foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi, the 14th Dalai Lama, and former Vietnamese ambassador to Washington Nguyễn Quốc Cường also sent condolences. [409] [410] [411] [412] [413] [414]

                                                                                  Colonel Trần Trọng Duyệt, who ran the Hỏa Lò Prison when McCain was held there, remarked, "At that time I liked him personally for his toughness and strong stance. Later on, when he became a US Senator, he and Senator John Kerry greatly contributed to promote Vietnam-US relations so I was very fond of him. When I learnt about his death early this morning, I feel very sad. I would like to send condolences to his family." [415] In a TV interview, Senator Lindsey Graham said McCain's last words to him were "I love you, I have not been cheated." [416] His daughter, Meghan McCain, shared her grief, stating that she was present at the moment he died. [417]

                                                                                  At the 70th Primetime Emmy Awards, McCain was recognized in the "In Memoriam" segment, right before Aretha Franklin. Many fans questioned the inclusion of McCain in the segment because he wasn't known for television. He had, however, appeared in various television projects, including hosting and several cameo appearances on Saturday Night Live. He also made appearances on Parks and Recreation and 24. [418]

                                                                                  Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) announced that he would introduce a resolution to rename the Russell Senate Office Building after McCain. [419] A quarter peal of Grandsire Caters in memory of McCain was rung by the bellringers of Washington National Cathedral the day following his death. [420] Another memorial quarter peal was rung on September 6 on the Bells of Congress at the Old Post Office in Washington. [421]

                                                                                  Reaction by Donald Trump

                                                                                  President Trump reportedly rejected the White House's plans to release a statement praising McCain's life, and he initially said nothing about McCain himself in a tweet that extended condolences to McCain's family. [422] In addition, the flag at the White House, which had been lowered to half-staff the day of McCain's death (August 25), was raised back to full-staff at 12:01 a.m. on August 27. [423] Trump reportedly felt that media coverage of McCain's death was excessive given that McCain was never president. [424] In contrast with the White House's initial decision, many governors, both Democratic and Republican, had ordered flags in their states to fly at half-staff until McCain's interment, and Senate leaders Mitch McConnell and Chuck Schumer requested support from the Defense Department so that flags would be flown at half-staff on all government buildings. [425] [426] Following public backlash from the American Legion and AMVETS, Trump relented and ordered the White House flag back to half-staff later in the day on August 27. Trump belatedly issued a statement praising McCain's service to the country, and he signed a proclamation ordering flags to be flown at half-staff until McCain's interment at the Naval Academy Cemetery. [427] [428]

                                                                                  In March 2019—seven months after McCain's death—Trump issued a series of public statements that criticized McCain at least four times in five days. [429] Trump also claimed that he approved McCain's funeral but was not thanked for it. However, the Washington National Cathedral responded that no governmental or presidential approval was needed for McCain's funeral because he was not a former president. McCain's lying in state was approved by the Senate, while Trump did approve the transport for McCain's body. [430] [431] [432] Trump also described himself as having "got the job done" on the Veterans Choice Act while claiming McCain failed on the same issue. However, McCain was actually one of the two main authors of the bill, which President Barack Obama signed into law in 2014. Trump had signed the VA MISSION Act of 2018 (S. 2372), an expansion of that law worked on by McCain that includes McCain's name in its full title. Trump also claimed that McCain graduated "last in his class", though McCain was actually fifth from last. [433] [434]

                                                                                  Various advocacy groups have given McCain scores or grades as to how well his votes align with the positions of each group. [436] CrowdPac, which rates politicians based on donations made and received, gave Senator McCain a score of 4.3C with 10C being the most conservative and 10L being the most liberal. [437]

                                                                                  The non-partisan National Journal rates a Senator's votes by what percentage of the Senate voted more liberally than him or her, and what percentage more conservatively, in three policy areas: economic, social, and foreign. For 2005–2006 (as reported in the 2008 Almanac of American Politics), McCain's average ratings were as follows: economic policy: 59 percent conservative and 41 percent liberal social policy: 54 percent conservative and 38 percent liberal and foreign policy: 56 percent conservative and 43 percent liberal. [438] In 2012, the National Journal gave McCain a composite score of 73 percent conservative and 27 percent liberal, [439] while in 2013 he received a composite score of 60 percent conservative and 40 percent liberal. [440]

                                                                                  Columnists such as Robert Robb and Matthew Continetti used a formulation devised by William F. Buckley Jr. to describe McCain as "conservative" but not "a conservative", meaning that while McCain usually tended towards conservative positions, he was not "anchored by the philosophical tenets of modern American conservatism". [441] [442] Following his 2008 presidential election loss, McCain began adopting more orthodox conservative views the magazine National Journal rated McCain along with seven of his colleagues as the "most conservative" Senators for 2010 [443] and he achieved his first 100 percent rating from the American Conservative Union for that year. [435] During Barack Obama's presidency, McCain was one of the top five Republicans most likely to vote with Obama's position on significant votes McCain voted with Obama's position on such votes more than half the time in 2013 and was "censured by the Arizona Republican party for a so-called 'liberal' voting record". [444]

                                                                                  From the late 1990s until 2008, McCain was a board member of Project Vote Smart which was set up by Richard Kimball, his 1986 Senate opponent. [445] The project provides non-partisan information about the political positions of McCain [446] and other candidates for political office. Additionally, McCain used his Senate website to describe his political positions. [447]

                                                                                  In his 2008 speech to the CPAC McCain stated that he believed in"small government fiscal discipline low taxes a strong defense, judges who enforce, and not make, our laws the social values that are the true source of our strength and, generally, the steadfast defense of our rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, which I have defended my entire career as God-given to the born and unborn."

                                                                                  In his 2018 memoir The Restless Wave, McCain described his views as such: "Last but not least, I was [at the time of entering Congress] a Republican, a Reagan Republican. Still am. Not a Tea Party Republican. Not a Breitbart Republican. Not a talk radio or Fox News Republican. Not an isolationist, protectionist, immigrant-bashing, scapegoating, get-nothing-useful-done Republican. Not, as I am often dismissed by self-declared 'real' conservatives, a RINO, Republican in Name Only. I'm a Reagan Republican, a proponent of lower taxes, less government, free markets, free trade, defense readiness, and democratic internationalism.[2]"

                                                                                  McCain's personal character was a dominant feature of his public image. [449] This image includes the military service of both himself and his family, [450] the circumstances and tensions surrounding the end of his first marriage and beginning of second, [29] his maverick political persona, [122] his temper, [451] his admitted problem of occasional ill-considered remarks, [96] and his close ties to his children from both his marriages. [29]

                                                                                  McCain's political appeal was more nonpartisan and less ideological compared to many other national politicians. [452] His stature and reputation stemmed partly from his service in the Vietnam War. [453] He also carried physical vestiges of his war wounds, as well as his melanoma surgery. [454] When campaigning, he quipped: "I am older than dirt and have more scars than Frankenstein." [455]

                                                                                  Writers often extolled McCain for his courage not just in war but in politics, and wrote sympathetically about him. [63] [449] [453] [456] McCain's shift of political stances and attitudes during and especially after the 2008 presidential campaign, including his self-repudiation of the maverick label, left many writers expressing sadness and wondering what had happened to the McCain they thought they had known. [457] [458] [459] [460] By 2013, some aspects of the older McCain had returned, and his image became that of a kaleidoscope of contradictory tendencies, including as a Republican In Name Only or a "traitor" to his party [461] and, as one writer listed, "the maverick, the former maverick, the curmudgeon, the bridge builder, the war hero bent on transcending the call of self-interest to serve a cause greater than himself, the sore loser, old bull, last lion, loose cannon, happy warrior, elder statesman, lion in winter." [320]

                                                                                  In his own estimation, McCain was straightforward and direct, but impatient. [462] His other traits included a penchant for lucky charms, [463] a fondness for hiking, [464] and a sense of humor that sometimes backfired spectacularly, as when he made a joke in 1998 about the Clintons that was widely deemed not fit to print in newspapers: "Do you know why Chelsea Clinton is so ugly? – Because Janet Reno is her father." [465] [466] McCain subsequently apologized profusely, [467] and the Clinton White House accepted his apology. [468] McCain did not shy away from addressing his shortcomings, and he apologized for them. [96] [469] He was known for sometimes being prickly [470] and hot-tempered [471] with Senate colleagues, but his relations with his own Senate staff were more cordial, and inspired loyalty towards him. [472] [473] He formed a strong bond with two senators, Joe Lieberman and Lindsey Graham, over hawkish foreign policy and overseas travel, and they became dubbed the "Three Amigos". [310]

                                                                                  McCain acknowledged having said intemperate things in years past, [474] though he also said that many stories have been exaggerated. [475] One psychoanalytic comparison suggested that McCain was not the first presidential candidate to have a temper, [476] and cultural critic Julia Keller argued that voters want leaders who are passionate, engaged, fiery, and feisty. [451] McCain employed both profanity [477] and shouting on occasion, although such incidents became less frequent over the years. [478] [479] Lieberman made this observation: "It is not the kind of anger that is a loss of control. He is a very controlled person." [478] Senator Thad Cochran, who knew McCain for decades and had battled him over earmarks, [480] [481] expressed concern about a McCain presidency: "He is erratic. He is hotheaded. He loses his temper and he worries me." [478] Yet Cochran supported McCain for president when it was clear he would win the nomination. [482] The Chicago Tribune editorial board called McCain a patriot, who although sometimes wrong was fearless, and that he deserves to be thought of among the few US senators in history, whose names are more recognizable than some presidents. [483]

                                                                                  All McCain's family members were on good terms with him, [29] and he defended them against some of the negative consequences of his high-profile political lifestyle. [484] [485] His family's military tradition extends to the latest generation: son John Sidney IV ("Jack") graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 2009, becoming the fourth generation John S. McCain to do so, and is a helicopter pilot son James served two tours with the Marines in the Iraq War and son Doug flew jets in the navy. [29] [486] [487] His daughter Meghan became a blogging and Twittering presence in the debate about the future of the Republican Party following the 2008 elections, and showed some of his maverick tendencies. [488] [489] In 2017 Meghan joined the cast of the popular ABC talk show The View as a co-host. [490] Senator McCain himself also appeared as a guest on the program. [491]

                                                                                  McCain appeared in several television shows and films while he was a sitting senator. He made uncredited cameo appearances in Wedding Crashers and 24 and had two uncredited cameos in Parks and Recreation. McCain also hosted Saturday Night Live in 2002 and appeared in two episodes in 2008. [492]

                                                                                  In addition to his military honors and decorations, McCain was granted a number of civilian awards and honors.

                                                                                  In 1997, Time magazine named McCain as one of the "25 Most Influential People in America". [130] In 1999, McCain shared the Profile in Courage Award with Senator Russ Feingold for their work towards campaign finance reform. [134] The following year, the same pair shared the Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in Government. [493] In 2005, The Eisenhower Institute awarded McCain the Eisenhower Leadership Prize. [494] The prize recognizes individuals whose lifetime accomplishments reflect Dwight D. Eisenhower's legacy of integrity and leadership. In 2006, the Bruce F. Vento Public Service Award was bestowed upon McCain by the National Park Trust. [495] The same year, McCain was awarded the Henry M. Jackson Distinguished Service Award by the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, in honor of Senator Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson. [496] In 2007, the World Leadership Forum presented McCain with the Policymaker of the Year Award it is given internationally to someone who has "created, inspired or strongly influenced important policy or legislation". [497] In 2010, President Mikheil Saakashvili of Georgia awarded McCain the Order of National Hero, an award never previously given to a non-Georgian. [498] In 2015, the Kyiv Patriarchate awarded McCain its own version of the Order of St. Vladimir. [499] In 2016, Allegheny College awarded McCain, along with Vice President Joe Biden, its Prize for Civility in Public Life. [500] In August 2016, Petro Poroshenko, the President of Ukraine, awarded McCain with the highest award for foreigners, the Order of Liberty. [501] In 2017, Hashim Thaçi, the President of Kosovo, awarded McCain the "Urdhër i Lirisë" (Order of Freedom) medal for his contribution to the freedom and independence of Kosovo, and its partnership with the U.S. [502] McCain also received the Liberty Medal from the National Constitution Center in 2017. [503] In the spring of 2018 McCain was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun from the Japanese Emperor for 'strengthening bilateral relations and promoting friendship between Japan and the United States'. [504]

                                                                                  McCain received several honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the United States and internationally. These include ones from Colgate University (LL.D 2000), [505] The Citadel (DPA 2002), [506] Wake Forest University (LL.D May 20, 2002), [507] [508] the University of Southern California (DHL May 2004), [509] Northwestern University (LL.D June 17, 2005), [510] [511] Liberty University (2006), [512] The New School (2006), [513] and the Royal Military College of Canada (D.MSc June 27, 2013). [514] [515] [516] He was also made an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society at Trinity College Dublin in 2005. [517]

                                                                                  On July 11, 2018, USS John S. McCain, originally named in honor of the Senator's father and grandfather, was rededicated in the Senator's name also. [518] [519]

                                                                                  On November 29, 2017, the Phoenix City Council unanimously voted to name Terminal 3 at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Honor of the Senator which opened on January 7, 2019 after his death in August 2018. [520]

                                                                                  On April 4, 2019, the Kyiv City Council renamed a street that had previously been named after the NKVD agent Ivan Kudria to "John McCain Street". [521] [522] [523]



                                                                                  SB-19, Ni'Var's alternative to warp drive

                                                                                  Around the mid-30th century, the dilithium supply in the Milky Way Galaxy began to dry up. The Federation issued a mandate to its member worlds to start trials on alternate warp drive designs that did not require dilithium, but none proved reliable. ( DIS : " People of Earth ")

                                                                                  The most promising project was SB-19, developed by the Vulcans and Romulans of Ni'Var. SB-19 would have allowed starships to be transported across thousands of light years in an instant, obviating the need for warp drive. As part of the project, sensors were scattered across dozens of light years of subspace. Though Ni'Var's scientists ultimately concluded that SB-19 was too dangerous to continue developing, the Federation denied their request to shutter the program because it was the most promising dilithium alternative being pursued at the time. ( DIS : " Unification III ")

                                                                                  Cause and event

                                                                                  In 3064, the KSF Khi'eth embarked on a mission to investigate a "dilithium nursery" in the Verubin Nebula. During the mission, the ship crashed on Theta Zeta, a planet composed of dilithium, at the center of the nebula. One of the Khi'eth's Kelpien crew members, Doctor Issa, was pregnant and later gave birth to Su'Kal. Su'Kal's cells acclimatized in utero to the dilithium, developing a connection to it.

                                                                                  Dozens of Federation starships.

                                                                                  . are destroyed in the Burn

                                                                                  Knowing she and her crewmates were dying, Issa created an elaborate holoprogram designed to educate and nurture Su'Kal and mask the crew's condition from him. In roughly 3069, however, Su'Kal was severely traumatized when he saw his mother die of radiation poisoning, resulting in an emotional outburst that caused a subspace shockwave that destabilized refined dilithium, causing it to suddenly become inert. ( DIS : " Su'Kal ", " That Hope Is You, Part 2 ") Because dilithium was used to regulate matter-antimatter reactions, this caused any ship with an active warp core to lose antimatter containment, resulting in a warp core breach. Countless ships were destroyed, including most belonging to the Federation, and millions of lives were lost. ( DIS : " That Hope Is You, Part 1 ", " People of Earth ", " Die Trying ") The Burn also decimated the population of Trill symbionts. ( DIS : " Forget Me Not ")

                                                                                  The event damaged subspace in some regions as well. The orbit of Kwejian's moon shifted as a result, causing extreme tides that unleashed swarms of sea locusts on the planet's harvest. ( DIS : " The Sanctuary ")


                                                                                  Following the disaster, the Federation was unable to determine what caused it, nor did it know if it would occur again. The Vulcans of Ni'Var believed that SB-19 caused the Burn, and the planet seceded from the Federation in 3089 despite the Romulans' desire to remain. Around the same time, the people of Earth, feeling an urgency to protect their planet, also seceded. The Federation and Starfleet subsequently relocated their headquarters from Earth to a large space station simply called Federation Headquarters. ( DIS : " People of Earth ", " Unification III ")

                                                                                  By 3188, the Federation, an organization that had nearly lasted a millennium and held 350 member worlds at its peak, had largely collapsed as a galactic superpower. As of 3189, it only retained 38 member worlds that Fleet Admiral Charles Vance was aware of, and was in conflict with the Emerald Chain crime syndicate. ( DIS : " That Hope Is You, Part 1 ", " Far From Home ", " Die Trying ")

                                                                                  In 3189, the USS Discovery began a new investigation of the cause of the Burn. Although the Burn appeared to occur everywhere simultaneously, analysis of various black boxes found that it took time to travel across the galaxy, and ultimately led to its point of origin in the Verubin Nebula. Discovery located the wreck of the Khi'eth in the nebula and made contact with Su'Kal. While in contact with Discovery's away team, a holographic Kelpien monster frightened Su'Kal, nearly causing another Burn. The away team rescued Su'Kal from the Khi'eth, preventing the possibility of another Burn. At the same time, the Emerald Chain was balkanized after an attempt to hijack Discovery and bring her to an Emerald Chain outpost resulted in Minister Osyraa's death, and the dilithium throughout Theta Zeta's structure allowed the Federation to finally recover from the Burn. As a result, multiple worlds that had seceded either rejoined, including Trill, or considered rejoining, including Ni'Var. ( DIS : " Scavengers ", " Unification III ", " The Sanctuary ", " Su'Kal ", " That Hope Is You, Part 2 ")

                                                                                  Intrepid III bark - History

                                                                                  C hromium salts, especially chrome alum and chromium(III) sulfate, are used in chromium-tanning of leather. The chromium stabilizes the leather by cross linking the collagen fibers. Chromium tanned leather can contain between 4 and 5% of chromium, which is tightly bound to the proteins. Although the form of chromium used for tanning is not the toxic hexavalent variety, there remains interest in management of chromium in the tanning industry such as recovery and reuse, direct/indirect recycling, use of less chromium or "chrome-less" tanning are practiced to better manage chromium in tanning.

                                                                                  C hromium salts or chromates in contact with your skin may result in dermatitis. Brief or occasional contact may not pose a problem. Potassium dichromate is a chromium salt or chromate and is a common metal making up a significant part of the earth’s crust.

                                                                                  The most common home exposure of chromate is leather. The majority of leather goods, including shoes and gloves, are tanned with chromates.

                                                                                  Chromium salts are occasionally found in detergents, shoe polishes, ashes, safety matches and military green dyes used in felt and textiles.

                                                                                  Chromium salts are found in many industrial materials such as cement, mortar, plaster, drywall and bricks.

                                                                                  Exposure may occur from chromium plating, engraving and printing chemicals, rust proofing primers, pigment in paint, inks, wood preservatives, lithography fixatives, chrome glues, adhesives, photographic chemicals, welding galvanized, chrome-plated metal and stainless steel. Cutting fluids and oils can be contaminated with chromium salts. Corrosion inhibitors and preservatives in cutting oils may contain chromium salts.

                                                                                  Avoid chromate tanned leather gloves and shoes. Use instead vegetable tanned leather shoes or plastic shoes. For those with shoe dermatitis from chromate and leather, wearing heavy socks and reducing perspiration and moisture may help to reduce dermatitis.

                                                                                  Permeation of chromium salts through human skin in vitro.

                                                                                  Source Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen.


                                                                                  C hromium permeation studies were performed on full thickness human skin in diffusion cells. All samples were analyzed for the total chromium content by graphite furnace Zeeman-corrected atomic absorption spectrometry. Some samples were analyzed by an ion chromatographic method permitting the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) as well. The amounts of chromium found in all skin layers were significantly higher when potassium dichromate was applied to the skin compared with chromium chloride or chromium nitrate. Chromium could only be detected in the recipient phase after application of the dichromate solution. Chromium skin levels increased with increasing concentrations of applied chromium salts up to 0.034 M Cr. The amount of chromium in recipient phase and skin layers increased with increasing pH when the applied solution contained potassium dichromate. This was ascribed to a decreased skin barrier function of the skin. The amount of chromium found in all skin layers after application of chromium chloride decreased with increasing pH due to lower solubility of the salt. The % of chromium found in the recipient phase as chromium(VI) increased with increasing total chromium concentration indicating a limited reduction ability of the skin in vitro.

                                                                                  Oak Bark-Tanning in the Traditional Manner

                                                                                  T he production process begins by stripping the animal hide of its hair. This is usually done by hand with a very large blade, which is pushed forward away from the shaver’s body. Once the hides have been shaved, they’re hung on frames and dipped into various pits, which contain different concentrations of tanning solutions. This occurs daily for about four weeks.

                                                                                  After the hides have gone through an initial surface tanning, they’re put into racks and submerged into another pit that’s half filled with tanning fluids. Shredded tanning agents are also placed between each “rack shelf” and the hides remain in the pit for six to twelve weeks.

                                                                                  The final step is the oak-bark ground-tanning stage. This occurs in old, nine-foot deep, oak-lined pits that are filled with a tanning solution and agents such as oak, spruce, and mimosa bark, as well as valonea fruit. The hides are not heated nor mechanically moved they just sit in this solution … for about nine months.

                                                                                  It’s a process that can altogether take up to a year. Compared to modern industrial tanning processes that take about a month, this can be very costly. The upside to it is a much finer leather. The tannins bind and conserve the leather’s protein structures, making the leather extremely durable, breathable and flexible. It’s also lightweight and more comfortable to wear.

                                                                                  Excerpts from BASF Tanner’s Manual, private publication, from private collection of Steven Siegel.

                                                                                  Past Time Tanneries in Europe

                                                                                  V egetable tanning has an ancient tradition and it is interesting to look back on the time before transition to industrial processing one hundred and more years ago.

                                                                                  At that time the tanner in Europe had at his disposal practically only oak and pine bark which he obtained from the neighboring woods. Individual tanners cultivated their own grove of oak trees from which they stripped to fill their needs. They knew how to produce a firm sole leather and soft russet upper leather with the same tanning materials. Moreover, leather for harnesses, saddles and carriage covers were needed and were also tanned with oak and pine bark. Some tanners specialized in fine upper and bag leather form calf and goat skins, and others lining leathers from sheep skins. They associated themselves in well organized guilds, and in their statues such rules were laid down as to how many master tanners were allowed to work in one place, and how many journeymen and apprentices each master tanner was permitted to employ. Thus production was kept within the required minimum, and the value of the leather was retained. Often, several tanneries were located adjacent to one another along a river or a dammed up stream. The raw skins which were brought to the tanners by the local butcher immediately after the animals were slaughtered and flayed, were soaked in the river.

                                                                                  The fresh skins which were not processed immediately after flaying were cured by salting and drying. Heavy hides were used for sole leather, medium hides for insole leather, and light hides for upper leather. The pelts only needed to be leveled in the thick areas, and thus the fibre texture and ultimately the natural tensile strength of the leather were retained.

                                                                                  The hides intended for use in the production of sole leather were sweated for unhairing or hair-loosening. In this process the hides were suspended in a humid air chamber at a constant temperature when the basal columnar cells were attacked and destroyed by the action of bacteria and fermentation. The hair was loosened in this manner and was then removed.

                                                                                  All hides other that those intended for the production of sole leather were limed. They were first immersed in a used lime liquor in order to loosen the hair more rapidly. Unhairing was carried out after a liming period of 5-7 days. The pelts for russet upper leather were subsequently relimed for a week in a fresh lime liquor. Reliming was not required for harness and sole leather.

                                                                                  Some of the tools used by the tanner in the olden days are still in use today, e.g. the beam on which unhairing, scraping, and fleshing were carried out, the scraping knife, the fleshing knife, the shaving knife and shaving beam, whetstone and steel for sharpening the knives. These were the implements used in the beam house.

                                                                                  The pelts for sole and insole leather were shaved free from veins. The pelts for harness leather were fleshed, and, in addition, levelled by shaving the excessively thick head and butt parts lightly. The pelts for russet upper leather were fleshed and shaved by hand in the butt section.

                                                                                  The rinsing and soaking of the pelts were again carried out in the river. The grain side was smoothed with a slating stone and scudded with a sharp scudding knife. The pelts for harness leather were lightly bated and the pelts for russet upper leather were heavily bated in an infusion of pigeon dung. This gave a moderate bating effect and a comparatively good deliming. The pelts for sole leather needed no deliming as the hair had not been loosened by liming but by sweating. The pelts for insole leather required no special deliming as they were sufficiently delimed in the early mild tan liquors.

                                                                                  The pelts for sole and insole leather were further treated in a plumping liquor which was strengthened with used sour liquor from the layaways, the goods being handled daily. Apart from undergoing a very light tannage, the pelts for sole leather were thus heavily plumped by acid swelling. The pelts for insole leather, however, were subjected to a weaker swelling action. Tannage was then continued in dusters and completed in layaways. The vessels employed were, as a rule, made of wood. They were sunk to ground level, and protected against damage by an insulating layer of firmly packed clay.

                                                                                  The pelts for harness and russet upper leather as well as calf, goat and sheep skins were pretanned. The higher the layers were piled in the vat, the greater was the pressure on the hides in the bottom layers. In order to reduce the heavy load, the vat was gradually filled with liquor while the hides were being layered, so that the bottom layers of the hides began to float. The hides were hauled from the layaways after 4 to 6 weeks, while they were left in the dusters for several months.

                                                                                  There were of course variations in the processing methods of the individual tanners. One had more oak bark and the other more pine bark at his disposal. Some also used willow bark, as for instance the tanners in the wide plains of Russia who used birch and willow bark to tan upper leather (Russian leather). They stripped the white bast from the birch bark and from this they extracted the birch bark oil which they used as an additive in oiling the tanned leather.

                                                                                  These old tanning methods required much time. The principle was to bring tan bark in contact with the skin in water. The tannin dissolved and combined with the skin fibre the concentration of the liquors was weak. One difficulty was the utilization of the residual tannin in the used tan bark. The latter was dumped in a collecting pit, water was run in, and the whole was left standing. Later, the water was drawn off and the pit was refilled. This brought about extensive fermentation processes, e.g., conversion of starch-like nontans into lactic acid. The conversion of sugary nontans into acetic acid proceeded very rapidly. By judicious use of a combination of this acid liquor, which possessed a swelling action, and the astringent oak bark tannin, firm leather was produced. Sweet liquors were employed for making soft russet upper leather.

                                                                                  The tanner did not take much time out for finishing the sole leather. It was hauled from the pit, freed from adhering tan bark and dried. The hammering was left to the shoemaker.

                                                                                  Harness and russet upper leathers were hauled from the pit, immersed in water, scoured, and aired off. They were then hand-stuffed with tallow, fish oil, and degras which were obtained from the tanners who practised oil tanning. After having been stuffed, the leathers were dried. The russet upper leather was subsequently dressed with the moon knife.

                                                                                  Such operations as setting out and whitening by hand already belong to the advanced processes of the more recent times.

                                                                                  It is interesting to go through the old tanners manuals and to see how this handicraft was practised in the olden days. The tanners endeavoured to perform their work with great care. The young journeymen set out on their travels to gather more experience. These old books give the reader some idea of the pride taken by the tanners in their work and the ethics of this profession.

                                                                                  With the advent of steam engine and railway the centuries-old tradition was interrupted and the guild system became ineffective. The world market was opened and the tanners were offered new, highly concentrated tanning materials and raw hides from abroad. The tanner who possessed a steam boiler could leach his used tan bark more efficiently with hot water. Thus the old basic principle of bringing tan bark in contact with the skin in water was abandoned. The tannins were leached and tanning was carried out with the extracts thus obtained. Next came the extract factories. Some people began to concentrate the leach liquor and sell it to the tanners in the form of a thick liquid extract. Tannery machines were built and were introduced to the tanneries along with the steam engine. When a tannery was enlarged to factory size, many small enterprises had to close shop. It was then that science began to take an interest in the secrets of leather manufacturing. With the aid of the chemists, leather processing made new advances as for instance the introduction of sodium sulphide and the development of the chrome tannage.

                                                                                  The transition from the handicraft to industrial operation advanced rapidly. In the following chapter we shall deal with the modern aspects of vegetable tanning.

                                                                                  Leather Factories (circa 1950)

                                                                                  In the factories we find brick or concrete pits in which soaking and liming are carried out. The pits are sufficiently wide and deep so that the hides can be hung up in them. The buildings in which the pits are located are high enough to permit the transferring of goods from one pit to another by means of overhead travelling cranes. Each pit can be rapidly drained and refilled with water. Sometimes the liming pits are provided with a mechanical agitator. Rocker liming is seldom found in Germany, but is widely used in the South American countries. In this method the hides are suspended from a frame which is slowly rocked about an axis half way along it. The rocking does not strain the hides excessively and yet provides adequate movement.

                                                                                  In other factories the soaking and liming pits have been dispensed with altogether and these operations are now carried out in drums 3 m long and 3 m in diameter. This method saves a lot of hand labor. The salted hides are thrown into the drum and worked in it until they come out as rinsed pelts. They are not handled at all by hand during all the operations. Soaking, rinsing, liming, and re-rinsing are all carried out in the same drum. The liming drums have a high speed gear for 5 to 6 rpm and a low one for 1 to 2 rpm. In addition, they have an electrical switching device for forward and reverse. It is important that the goods are drummed a short period only and then left standing. One or two revolutions will suffice to change the position of the goods. It is better to change the soaking water more often and to give only a light rinsing. After the lime liquor has been added, the goods are drummed for 10 minutes in order to stir up the mixture thoroughly, and then the drum is moved only 1-2 revolutions every 1-6 hours. The goods should be washed with several changes of water preferable to prolonged rinsing.

                                                                                  Hand-fleshing is hardly done at all nowadays, and instead, fleshing machines are used. The band-knife splitting machine has become indispensable. It can level a pelt to any desirable thickness. Special machines (Leidgren, Alisora) have been developed for clearing the grain. Lattice drums and paddles were introduced for deliming and bating. The lattice drum is fixed horizontally in a pit, and when the latter is filled with water, two thirds of the drum is submerged. Inside the drum are rows of pegs which agitate the goods when the drum is turned. For deliming heavy hides, the lattice drum is more suitable than the paddle, the latter being more advantageous for light leathers. A paddle should have the same dimensions in width and length, a rounded bottom, and a depth equal to half its width. The walls of the vessel project somewhat over the water level in order to avoid spilling of water when the paddle rotates. Both the lattice drum and the paddle are suitable for deliming and bating, but not always for soaking and liming.

                                                                                  The suspenders play an important part in the tanning process and merit a detailed discussion.

                                                                                  The suspender pits are built adjacent to one another in a long row. They are 2.3 to 2.5 meters square and 3 meters deep in order to allow the pelts to be suspended in them in their full length with the head pointing downwards. If the pits are less deep, the pelts are folded in along the shoulder line and hung up by the tips behind the foreshank. The building in which the pits are located are high enough to permit overhead cranes to be installed for transferring the pelts from one pit to another.

                                                                                  There are various systems of working a round of suspenders, the most simple one being without flow of liquor. Each day the pelts are hauled and moved forward one pit. The pits are not connected with one another. A 12 pit system is depicted in the diagram below, No 1 being the weakest or head liquor and No 12 the strongest or end liquor.

                                                                                  The procedure is as follows: the latest pack in No. 12 is taken out, the remaining packs are moved forward one pit, and a fresh pack is placed in No. 1. When the goods are hauled off the next time, the liquor in No. 1 is exhausted and is run off. The pit is cleaned and filled with fresh liquor and thus becomes the end suspender. The pack in No. 12 is then transferred to No.1, and the remaining packs are moved forward one pit. The head liquor is now in No. 2, the next time in No. 3, then in No. 4, and so on. If this method is used, the packs have to be hauled twice on the day when a fresh end liquor is prepared. If the suspender pits are not arranged in a continuous cycle, as shown above, but in a row, as shown below, the transferring of goods from the last pit to the first pit involves a great deal of extra work and is very costly when it has to be done by hand labor.

                                                                                  The suspend systems without flow of liquor do not ensure an entirely uniform treatment of the goods. The leathers which are transferred into a freshly prepared end liquor undergo a better treatment than do those which are moved into an end liquor that has only been strengthened. For this reason, the suspenders are provided with a counter-flow system as shown in the sketch below. The pits are interconnected by pipes on the overflow. In this system, No.1 is always the head liquor into which the fresh pelts are placed. Each day, the pack that has undergone the longest treatment, i.e., the one in No. 12, is taken out and the other packs are moved forward one pit, the most important factor being that No. 12 is strengthened daily with the same amount of fresh liquor which is led to the bottom of the pit by means of a hose. The strengthening liquor which has a density of, say, 7o BÃ does not mix completely with the lighter liquor of, say, 6o BÃ to which it is added, but submerges and presses it over into the the next pit. Thus, the overflowing liquor of 6o BÃ from No. 12 runs through a copper pipe or wooden channel to the bottom of No. 11 where it, as the heavier liquor now, forces the lighter liquor of, say, 5.5o BÃ in this pit to flow over to the next pit No. 10. This process is repeated - the liquor strength ever weaker - from pit to pit until the exhausted liquor flows from the last pit directly into the drain.

                                                                                  The overflows should be installed at such a height that the suspended pelts are always surrounded by liquor. The strengthening liquor should not be fed in by means of a too quickly operating pump, as otherwise the flow of liquor could not pass the press-over holes at the same speed, and as a result the pits would run over. It would be wrong to try to correct this deficiency by building in larger overflow pipes or setting them at a lower levels or removing the channels which lead the liquor down to the bottom of the pits. The proper procedure is to use a very small feed pump. Another method is to pump the replenishment liquor into an elevated storage tank from where it flows down into the pit in a thin stream. The replenishing may last for hours and it is the slow addition of strengthening liquor that ensures that the heavier liquor gradually forces the lighter liquor up and presses it over into the adjacent pit. In the majority of tanneries the tanning in suspenders is performed according to this counter-flow system. This method, when carried out properly, ensures the greatest uniformity of leathers produced, because each pelt is offered the same quantity of tannins. Since the pelts take up the tans from the liquor and leave behind the non-tans, the early liquors contain an excess of non-tans and few tans. Thus, from pit to pit, the pelts are passed through liquors not only of increasingly higher density, but also containing gradually more and more tans and less non-tans. All that has to be done daily is the replenishing of the end liquor.

                                                                                  In a counter-flow system the analysis of the suspender liquors will always show constant ratios of tans to non-tans, provided that the packs entered are of the same size, the individual pelts do not differ more than plus or minus 10% in weight, and equal quantities of the same tannin mixture are used for strengthening. The tan content of the early liquors and that of the exhausted liquor which is run off, must be carefully observed. If the latter contains too much tans, the suspender system is too short, and if the early liquors are too strongly exhausted, the system is too long. In the first case, the liquor to goods ration should be checked in order to determine if this deficiency can be corrected by bringing in packs of larger size and higher weight. Another way of effecting a quicker exhaustion of the liquors is to use a larger quantity of quick-acting tannins, e.g., chestnut, in the tanning mixture and to reduce the quantity of slow-acting tannins, e.g., sulphated quebracho. The most simple remedy, of course, is to add less strengthening liquor. If, conversely, the early liquors are found to be too strongly exhausted as is often the case in practice, it is best to add more replenishment liquor. If, however, a check reveals that a sufficient quantity of tannins has been added, the fault would lie in the system being too long. If this is the case, one or two additional packs can be taken out from the late liquors and the pelts in the early liquors are hung farther apart, i.e., the pelts of a single pack are divided up and suspended in two pits. In the third or fourth suspender the original number of pelts is put together again to form one pack. The pelts color much better when they are hung farther apart in the early liquors, the suspension time being varied as required. It would also be helpful to use more slow-acting and less quick-acting tannins.

                                                                                  Thus, the suspender system can be controlled in various ways. A properly run suspender system is invaluable. The liquors are exhausted at regular intervals and the leathers are all uniformly pretanned.

                                                                                  It is often falsely assumed that in a counter-flow suspender system the pits can never be cleaned, because they are always filled with liquor. Each suspender pit is cleaned at least once a year and the ones of the early liquors even more often. The procedure is as follows: starting with the end suspender, one takes out the goods and pumps the liquor through a filter into a storage tank. The empty pit is cleaned and the filtered liquor is then run back. If, for instance, the liquors of a 12 pit system are to be completely renewed, the following procedure is recommended: after the pack has been taken out of pit No. 12, the liquor is pumped into pit No. 11 and presses down through the section and finally an equal volume of exhausted liquor flows from pit No. 1 into the drain. The empty pit No. 12 is cleaned and filled with a fresh liquor, the packs being moved forward one pit. After some time, the hauling of the packs is stopped at pit No. 11 which is emptied and cleaned in the same manner by pumping its liquor into pit No. 10. The empty pit, however, is not filled with a fresh liquor, but with the overflowing liquor from pit No. 12, when the leather is replenished with fresh liquor. This procedure is repeated with each pit down the line at certain intervals. This is also a convenient method for straightening out a completely muddled up suspender system.

                                                                                  A third suspender system works in such a manner that the leathers are not hauled and only the liquors are transferred.

                                                                                  The pits are arranged in a continuous row. They are interconnected by press-over pipes as described above. This system allows for transferring liquor from one pit to another or to the drain. One pit is always left empty and is carefully covered up to prevent accidents. If No. 1 is the spare pit, the earliest pack is No. 2 containing the strongest liquor is taken out. The liquor in No. 2 is pumped into No. 3 and presses down through the section, and eventually the overflowing liquor from No. 12 fills up the spare pit No. 1. The now empty pit No. 2 is cleaned and covered up with the lid. Replenishing liquor is then pumped into No. 3 and presses down through into No. 3 and presses down through the section and the overflowing, exhausted liquor from No. 1 is run off.

                                                                                  Subsequently, the outlet of No. 1 to the drain is shut off and the overflow to No. 2 opened. As soon as No. 1 is filled with liquor, fresh pelts are entered. If the individual pits are not provided with a drain hole, the excess liquor must be pumped out, and this means extra work. The procedure described above is repeated each day from pit to pit, the pelts being entered, sometimes moved a little at the beginning, and then taken out later from the same pit as pretanned leather. This suspender system is particularly useful where space is extremely limited and the hauling of the packs involves difficulty.

                                                                                  Tannage in dusters and layaways subsequent to pretannage in suspender liquors is still being carried out in small and medium size tanneries. Even today dusters must be considered a useful means for continuing the tanning process. Since the pelts are pretanned in a hanging position, folds are liable to form. By laying the hides out flat in pits, the folds are smoothed out, and are not retained after tannage.

                                                                                  Tannage in dusters is carried out as follows: a pit is half filled with liquor, two or three baskets full of dusting material are thrown in to serve as a float, and immediately afterwards the pelts are brought in. Two men lift up the first hide - when whole hides for russet upper or case and harness leathers are being processed - holding it over the pit by the shanks and letting its head fall on the floating dusting material at the edge of the pit. A third man stands on the opposite side of the pit with a basket containing moistened dusting material which he strews onto the folded-in head of the hide. The first two men then throw in the hide in such a manner that it lies flat in the pit, and smooth out any folds, which may have formed at the edges, by means of a light pole. The third man then covers the hide with dusting material while the other two fetch the next hide.

                                                                                  A rapid layering method for factory sole leather after pretannage in the suspenders is carried out as follows: a hole is punched in the tail and head of the sides and they are then placed alongside the pit. A supply of moistened dusting material is piled up on a wooden support on the other side of the pit. The bottom of the pit is covered with a layer of used ground tan bark. Two men lift up the first hide and place it flat into the pit by means of bamboo poles that have a brass hook attached to one end. A third man covers the laid out side with dusting material using a large shovel while the first two men fetch the next side, the pit being gradually run up with tan liquor.

                                                                                  Oak bark is seldom used as dusting material, because of its very high price, and pine bark is often unsuitable on account of its acid forming property. Mimosa bark on the other hand can be used to advantage as dusting material.

                                                                                  Tannage in dusters and layaways with ground tanning material is often said to have the following disadvantages: the tan bark must be ground: it must be moistened in order to prevent it from dusting when it is strewn the hides must be hauled from the tan pits the leathers must be rinsed the used tan bark must be disposed of and leached. This all involves high expenditures for labor. This is true, and therefore dusters and layaways are being more and more replaced by tanning in liquors known as handlers. For this purpose, the pelts, after they have been pretanned in a round of suspenders, are suspended for a prolonged period in a separate pit containing a stronger liquor. Nowadays the leathers which have been pretanned in suspender liquors are often directly placed in a tanning drum for concluding the tannage. The leathers are tanned through in the dusters without agitation while they are moved in the drum in order to attain complete penetration. The term complete penetration is construed to mean that each leather is thoroughly tanned in every place. Care must be taken that complete penetration is always ensured. Since it would be impossible for the tanner to make a cut in every leather to test the degree of penetration, he would usually tan the leathers somewhat stronger rather than too weakly. Tanning by agitation in the drums is the safest way of ensuring uniform penetration of the leathers.

                                                                                  The normal size tanning drums are 3 m long and 3 m in diameter a smaller model is 2.5 m long by 2.5 m in diameter. Across the drum in the inside are rows of pegs placed at regular intervals apart and attached to the staves. The drums are provided with a safety valve in the end or “head”, or on the periphery to allow any excess pressure that is liable to build up during agitation to escape. The valve automatically opens when it is on top and shuts off when it is at the bottom of the rotating drum, leakage of liquor being thus prevented. The rate of rotation of the 2.5 m drum is 5-6 r.p.m. and that of the 3 m drum is 3-5 r.p.m. The drums are fitted with an automatic reversing gear which allows the drum to rotate alternately in both directions. The continual change of the direction of drumming prevents the goods from becoming tied up in knots.

                                                                                  The older type drums are of the smaller size. The of the drums is from one end, there being a pinion on the shaft of the driving pulleys, which gears with a large toothed wheel fixed directly to the wooden end of the drum. By means of one straight and one crossed driving belt the drums can be rotated forwards and backwards, the direction being automatically changed by a contrivance which engages and disengages the two driving belts alternately on the driving pulley and the idling pulley. This has been the standard type drum for decades, and it is still largely employed nowadays. They have several disadvantages. The driving force is transmitted from the toothed wheel via the fastening bolts to one end of the drum and from there via the staves to the other end, in which the fastening bolts are tightly fitted in the beginning, are soon worn out. An even greater danger is that the staves are liable to come loose along the edges where they are joined to the ends of the drum causing it to leak. This is illustrated in the sketch shown below.

                                                                                  The drum is driven from the right hand side. At every change in the direction of rotation, as indicated by the left- and right-hand arrows, the momentum acquired by the heavy drum up to the moment of change has to be overcome. This puts the drum under a heavy stress at the stave joints with the result that the drum begins to leak after it has been in use for only 5 or 6 years. The stress is even greater on the large drums, and therefore a steel frame is built around the wooden drum like a cage. The toothed wheel is attached to the steel frame and relieves the drum from excess stress.

                                                                                  A further advancement is the automatically operating electrical reversing gear. As soon as the momentum acquired by the revolving drum is overcome, the drum remains for seconds in the position of rest before it is started again in the other direction. Considerable savings in material are thus ensured.

                                                                                  The latest trend is to dispense also with the suspenders and to carry out the whole tannage exclusively in drums.


                                                                                  Goreic society consists exclusively of rival tribes, constantly at each other's throats. The Gores are a non-literate culture, and no effort is made to advance or preserve knowledge that is not related to warfare. In contradiction to this is the fact that the Gores are also the most technologically advanced known civilization. In the past, Goreic warfighters have been seen operating many Old World contraptions, such as ancient firearms, armored vehicles, helicopters, and even rudimentary power armor. Much of this equipment is perhaps centuries or even millennia old, and with such low literacy rates it is currently unknown how the Gores maintain a fleet of these machines of war. Despite operating such advanced machinery, the Gores still prefer honorable melee combat, only resorting to such engines of war during sieges or in times of crisis. However, not all Gores are so keen to using advanced technology, as evidenced by the existence of the Old Ways, a subfaith of the Family where all modern progress is discarded and its believers live entirely off the land using primitive technology.

                                                                                  The Gores are also deeply devoted to religion, worshipping the Family and the Old Tree, with most tribes having their own patron deity. Most strangely of all, the Gores appear to have some sort of psychic or telepathic bond to a pocket dimension known to outsiders simply as the Goreic Forest.

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