Joel Barr

Joel Barr

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Joel Barr, was born in New York City on 1st January, 1916. His parents were Jewish immigrants who had fled from Russia after the failed 1905 Revolution.

According to Alexander Feklissov, "Barr came from an impoverished Jewish family. Upon arriving in New York the Barrs were desperately trying to make ends meet. Once, when they were unable to pay the rent, the police threw them into the street." (1)

Barr and Julius Rosenberg went to the same school and became close friends. They both passed the tough entrance examination to City College of New York where college tuition was free. They also both joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA).

The Army Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, hired Barr as an electrical engineer in July 1940. Rosenberg signed on with the corps as a junior engineer two months later. (2) In 1941 they were recruited as Soviet spies by Jacob Golos. Barr's code name was Meter (3). They in turn persuaded Alfred Sarant to join the network.

According to Alexander Feklissov: "Joel and Alfred were good friends and spent a lot of time together. I must admit that Sarant had the makings of an undercover agent; he was a cautious young man, yet full of resolve, with progressive ideas. Before we recruited him though, he had to pass a test. Barr asked Sarant to borrow some secret documents to which he had access because he, Barr, needed them for his personal use. Alfred did not hesitate in helping his friend and in the meantime the Center approved a bona fide approach." (4) However, he was at first reluctant to become a spy but was eventually convinced to join the network by Barr. Sarant was given the code name Hughes.

Steven T. Usdin has pointed out: "Barr recruited Alfred Sarant, the only known member of the Rosenberg ring who was neither Jewish nor a graduate of City College of New York. Barr and Sarant were talented electrical engineers who found technical advances in radar and electronics as compelling and important as class struggle. This dual set of interests made them remarkably successful... Barr and Sarant worked on, or had access to, detailed specifications for most of the US air- and ground-based radars; the Norden bombsight; analog fire-control computers; friend-or-foe identification systems; and a variety of other technologies." (5)

Alexander Feklissov later recalled that Sarant's recruitment had a positive effect on Barr "who no longer felt alone and could sleep better". (6) Sarant even moved to Greenwich Village to share his friend's apartment. Sarant also got a new job at Bell Research Laboratories developing radio electrical devices for military application. This included working on the Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star. Barr worked for the Western Electric plant in New York City, designing improvements on radar devices to be fitted on B-type bombers.

Alexander Feklissov watched the early progress of Barr and Julius Rosenberg: "They shared many interests; they had the same Communist ideals; they were part of of a study group of Marxist literature and sympathized with the USSR... From the start of our relationship we asked them to hide their opinions and refrain from any activity they could draw attention to them." (7)

On 23 February 1942, the Signal Corps fired Barr on the advice of the FBI and placed his name on a list of undesirable employees who were ineligible for employment by the army. "More than 100 of Barr’s colleagues at the Signal Corps laboratory signed petitions requesting that the army reconsider the action; many of them scratched their names off or ripped up the petitions when they learned that he had been fired because he was a communist." (8)

Rosenberg's spy network included Barr, Alfred Sarant, Morton Sobell, David Greenglass, William Perl and Vivian Glassman. Barr had access to most of the secret documentation available in his field. Barr took the material as he left the office at night. He passed the material to Rosenberg, who arranged for it to be copied by Semyon Semyonov. The material reached Barr before he returned it to the office the following morning. Alexander Feklissov claims that between 1943 and 1945 the Rosenberg group "had given me over 20,000 pages of technical documents plus another 12,000 pages of the complete design manual for the first U.S. jet fighter, the P-80 Shooting Star." (9)

By 1944 Rosenberg was microfilming the documents being stolen by Barr and Sarant, who worked at Bell Research Laboratories developing radio electrical devices for military application. On 5th December, 1944, Stepan Apresyan warned about overworking Rosenberg: "Expedite consent to the joint filming of their materials by both METER (Joel Barr) and HUGHES (Alfred Sarant). LIBERAL (Julius Rosenberg) has on hand eight people plus the filming of materials. The state of LIBERAL's health is nothing splendid. We are afraid of putting LIBERAL out of action with overwork." (10)

The Soviets suffered a set-back when Julius Rosenberg was sacked from the Army Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, when they discovered that he had been a member of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). NKVD headquarters in Moscow sent Leonid Kvasnikov a message on 23rd February, 1945: "The latest events with (Julius Rosenberg), his having been fired, are highly serious and demand on our part, first, a correct assessment of what happened, and second, a decision about (Rosenberg's) role in future. Deciding the latter, we should proceed from the fact that, in him, we have a man devoted to us, whom we can trust completely, a man who by his practical activities for several years has shown how strong is his desire to help our country. Besides, in (Rosenberg) we have a capable agent who knows how to work with people and has solid experience in recruiting new agents." (11)

Kvasnikov's main concern was that the FBI had discovered that Rosenberg was a spy. To protect the rest of the network, Feklissov was told not to have any contact with Rosenberg. However, the NKVD continued to pay Rosenberg "maintenance" and was warned not to take any important decisions about his future work without their consent. Eventually they gave him permission to take "a job as a radar specialist with Western Electric, designing systems for the B-29 bomber." (12)

In October 1946 Joel Barr found work at the Sperry Gyroscope Company. He was employed to work on a classified missile defense project and in June 1947, a security official at the company contacted the FBI to ask about a security clearance for their new employee. According to Steven T. Usdin: "The Bureau quickly noted that he had been fired from the army as a subversive and that he was on a list of communist party members. Nonetheless, it spent months collecting documents from the army, interviewing Barr’s neighbors, and peering into his bank accounts. In the first week of October 1947, the Bureau sent a summary of its investigation to Sperry, which fired him a week later. The FBI’s success in finally ending Barr’s espionage career was marred by its failure to exploit the leads generated by his case. The Bureau treated Barr as a security risk but did not seriously investigate the possibility that he was a Soviet spy. On his job application, which Sperry had turned over to the FBI, Barr had listed three personal references. FBI agents interviewed two of them, but inexplicably ignored the third: Julius Rosenberg. If the agents who reviewed Barr’s file had looked, they would have seen that the Bureau had an extensive file on Rosenberg." (13)

Alexander Feklissov explained that it was now important to get Barr out of the country: "He was 32 years old and his chances of securing a job commensurate with his qualifications after such a rejection were basically nil. His love of music took over and since at his age he couldn't hope to become a pianist, he wanted to be a composer. Joel told his new Soviet case officer who was actually only a contact, since he no longer produced any information that he wanted to go to Europe. Even for Soviet intelligence the change in its agent's life was not very attractive, the rule was to help all important sources in their enterprises and to thank them for that they had done in the past. Furthermore, Barr could also become an excellent illegal in the future. Its case officer approved his plan. Out of caution, Joel first went to Belgium, but his destination was Paris. He began by learning to play the piano very well, but he didn't want to go to the Conservatoire because he had his own theory and system. In six months he learned the piano without doing scales, which he hated. He became a pupil of Olivier Messiaen, the famous composer and teacher. The very talented Barr quickly made many friends within international artistic circles." (14)

On 16th June, 1950, David Greenglass was arrested. The New York Tribune quoted him as saying: "I felt it was gross negligence on the part of the United States not to give Russia the information about the atom bomb because he was an ally." (15) According to the New York Times, while waiting to be arraigned, "Greenglass appeared unconcerned, laughing and joking with an FBI agent. When he appeared before Commissioner McDonald... he paid more attention to reporters' notes than to the proceedings." (16) Greenglass's attorney said that he had considered suicide after hearing of Gold's arrest. He was also held on $1000,000 bail.

On 6th July, 1950, the New Mexico federal grand jury indicted Greenglass on a charge of conspiring to commit espionage in wartime on behalf of the Soviet Union. Specifically, he was accused of meeting with Harry Gold in Albuquerque on 3rd June, 1945, and producing "a sketch of a high explosive lens mold" and receiving $500 from Gold. It was clear that Gold had provided the evidence to convict Greenglass.

The New York Daily Mirror reported on 13th July that Greenglass had decided to join Harry Gold and testify against other Soviet spies. "The possibility that alleged atomic spy David Greenglass has decided to tell what he knows about the relay of secret information to Russia was evidenced yesterday when U. S. Commissioner McDonald granted the ex-Army sergeant an adjournment of proceedings to move him to New Mexico for trial." (17) Four days later the FBI announced the arrest of Julius Rosenberg. The New York Times reported that Rosenberg was the "fourth American held as a atom spy". (18)

NKVD was worried that Joel Barr would be arrested in Paris. It was decided to help him flee to Czechoslovakia: "After the arrest of Gold and David Greenglass, it became clear that he was running the risk of being arrested as well. An escape route was set up. Czechoslovakia was at that time a hub between Western and Eastern Europe. Easily accessible to Westerners, the country was firmly part of the Socialist bloc. His case officer advised him not to request a visa in France since it was a NATO member and an ally of the United States. Barr went to Switzerland, obtained a visa, and on June 22 arrived by train in Prague. He was now safe." (19)

With the help of the intelligence services Barr acquired a new identity, he changed his name to Johan Burgh and became a citizen of South Africa. His birth date was also altered to 7th October, 1917. He was joined by Alfred Sarant, who took the name Philip Staros. His "legend" was that he had been born in Greece and had been living in Canada, which explained his excellent mastery of the English language. Barr married a local Czech woman, Vera Bergova.

Alexander Feklissov met them in Prague in 1955 to discuss their future: "Sarant... was a handsome southern European type, with black hair slicked back, bushy eyebrows, small mustache and swarthy complexion. His dark eyes were set very deep. I had seen pictures of him smiling and now he appeared dark and unhappy, just like Barr. They both gazed at me intensely. They were, in fact very different types as I could observe during the meal. Alfred was not so tall, about five feet eight, well built, with broad shoulders full of Mediterranean exuberance. Joel Barr looked like an intellectual, over six feet tall, very thin and round-shouldered. He was losing his hair and this made his face look even longer, with his gray eyes behind his thin-rimmed glasses." (20)

Barr and Sarant told Feklissov they wanted to "build compact computers for military purposes" in the Soviet Union. Their request was granted and they moved to Moscow at the end of 1955. The men were given their own laboratory in Leningrad with the name LKB. Sarant was head engineer and Barr was his deputy. The first LKB computer "turned out ten times smaller than similar Soviet machines, using less electrical power and functioning flawlessly." LKB was the first lab in the Soviet Union to manufacture transistors and integrated circuits. The UM-1 was the first computer to network technological procedures.

Nikita Khrushchev visited LKB to inspect what has been described as a "sort of Silicon Valley before its time". After giving him a radio that was no larger than a pea, Sarant took Khrushchev on a tour of the laboratory. Afterwards he told him: "Nikita Sergeyevich, we are on the threshold of an intellectual revolution that will not only change our way of life but our way of thinking.... You have just seen that in the manufacturing of computers we are practically at the same level as the United States. But we want to pull ahead of America! We need your support. We can make the USSR the first technological power in the world." (21)

A few days after this meeting the Soviet government decided to build a microelectronic center. Three months later the city of Zelonograd was being built thirty miles outside Moscow. The capital was surrounded by satellite cities, each one with a different specialty in nuclear physics, missiles, high tech computers and space travel. Sarant was named director of the centre and Barr became his deputy. However, important figures in the Soviet government disliked the idea of foreigners being in charge of a complex making cutting-edge technology and they were eventually removed from their posts.

Barr continued to be interested in science and patented 250 inventions. "Barr was also an artist... In spite of his age, Barr was still the bohemian he had been when he was younger. His house was always full of artists and musicians while he would be telling jokes, playing the piano, singing and dancing as much as the younger generation." (22) Two of Barr's children fled the Soviet Union and established themselves as musicians in the United States.

In 1974 Alfred Sarant was appointed head of a new laboratory for artificial intelligence in Vladivostok. On 16th March, 1979 he was proposed as a candidate as a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. He traveled the 5,000 miles to Moscow only to find his jealous colleagues had rejected his candidacy. Sarant was taken ill in the car taking him back to the Moskva Hotel and a few minutes later he died of a heart attack.

In 1990 Barr visited the United States with a delegation of Soviet scientists. Barr decided to live in New York City and in interviews with American newspapers he denied spying for the Soviet Union. He received Soviet Union benefits of $244 per month but found this difficult to live on and had to share an apartment with some old retired friends.

Eventually he decided to return to live in St. Petersburg. In March 1997 he gave a long interview to Komsomolskaya Pravda, where he denied he was ever involved in spying. He also argued that Julius Rosenberg was an innocent victim of McCarthyism and that he planned to organize a Russian-American committee that would campaign for the rehabilitate the Rosenbergs.

Joel Barr died in Moscow on 1st August, 1998.

Expedite consent to the joint filming of their materials by both METER (Joel Barr) and HUGHES (Alfred Salent). We are afraid of putting LIBERAL out of action with overwork.

Barr’s past finally caught up with him more than five years after the FBI first identified him as a security risk and three years after it received definite information that he was a communist party member. In June 1947, a security official at Sperry Gyroscope Company, which hired Barr in October 1946 to work on a classified missile defense project, contacted the FBI to ask about a security clearance for their new employee. The Bureau quickly noted that he had been fired from the army as a subversive and that he was on a list of communist party members. In the first week of October 1947, the Bureau sent a summary of its investigation to Sperry, which fired him a week later.

The FBI’s success in finally ending Barr’s espionage career was marred by its failure to exploit the leads generated by his case. If the agents who reviewed Barr’s file had looked, they would have seen that the Bureau had an extensive file on Rosenberg.

The FBI turned its attention to Barr again in the summer of 1948, when it investigated the possibility that he was the engineer described in Venona decrypts as “Liberal” (the codename was actually assigned to Rosenberg). After learning from Barr’s mother that he was studying electronics in Sweden, the FBI asked the CIA to locate him and monitored the Barr family correspondence. Barr wrote a letter to his mother when he moved to Paris to study music, and the FBI obtained his address from the envelope.

Meanwhile, the Venona decrypts sparked investigations that culminated in the arrests in December 1949 and February 1950, respectively, of atomic spy Klaus Fuchs and his courier, Harry Gold. Gold provided information that led the FBI to David Greenglass, who fingered his brother-in-law, Julius Rosenberg. The spy network unraveled.

Barr was out of work by October 1947. He was 32 years old and his chances of securing a job commensurate with his qualifications after such a rejection were basically nil. The very talented Barr quickly made many friends within international artistic circles. The PGU paid for his studies in Paris just as it had done at Columbia University, in New York.

Naturally, Barr was in contact with an officer at the Paris Rezidentura. After the arrest of Gold and David Greenglass, it became clear that he was running the risk of being arrested as well. He was now safe.

(1) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 114

(2) Steven T. Usdin, Tracking Julius Rosenberg’s Lesser Known Associates (April, 2007)

(3) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 217

(4) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) pages 116 and 117

(5) Steven T. Usdin, Tracking Julius Rosenberg’s Lesser Known Associates (April, 2007)

(6) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 117

(7) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 114

(8) Steven T. Usdin, Tracking Julius Rosenberg’s Lesser Known Associates (April, 2007)

(9) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 140

(10) Stepan Apresyan, report on Julius Rosenberg (5th December, 1944)

(11) NKVD headquarters, message to Leonid Kvasnikov (23rd February, 1945)

(12) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 114

(13) Steven T. Usdin, Tracking Julius Rosenberg’s Lesser Known Associates (April, 2007)

(14) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 253

(15) The New York Tribune (17th June, 1950)

(16) New York Times (17th June, 1950)

(17) New York Daily Mirror (13th July, 1950)

(18) New York Times (18th July, 1950)

(19) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 253

(20) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 286

(21) Alfred Salant, quoted in Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 288

(22) Alexander Feklissov, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs (1999) page 291


Fred Barr built the trail bearing his name during the years of 1914-1918. Built as a trail for burro rides to the summit, it began at the top of the Manitou Incline, a funicular rail that took tourists up one mile and nearly 2000 ft above the Cog Railway Depot. The lower three miles were built in the 1917 by the Forest Service using Civilian Conservation Corps workers.

In addition to Barr Trail, Mr. Barr built many other trails on Pikes Peak and the Pikes Peak Region. He built Barr Camp 1922-1924 as a halfway overnight stop for the burro trips to the summit of Pikes Peak. In addition to the two cabins you will see when you visit Barr Camp, there was a third cabin that burned in the early 1970s and a burro barn that was torn down in the 1960s at the request of the Forest Service.

Fred Barr never owned the land but had sole authorization for his burro concession from the Forest Service. After his death in 1940, the burro concession continued until 1959, when the livery at the top of the incline was refused lease renewal. The camp was abandoned and suffered vandalism during the time it was vacant. In 1963, the Mennonite Church took over the lease for the camp and worked to rebuild the cabin and grounds. While there were caretakers in the camp during the summer months, the vandalism continued during the other seasons. After 13 summers of rebuilding, the Mennonite Community felt it was no longer possible to maintain the camp only during summers. The destruction continued through the late 1970’s when the Forest Service was preparing to raze the buildings.

At this time, Monte Barrett and Harold Barnes of Adventures Ltd. bought the lease from the forest service and began operating and repairing the hostel year-round. In 1981, Barr Camp, Inc. was formed. Through hard work and the donations of people over-nighting and eating at the camp, volunteers were able to revive the camp as way-station on Pikes Peak. In the 1998, Barr Camp became a non-profit organization.

Through the generosity of hikers and several organizations, Barr Camp underwent a major upgrade in 2000 with the addition of a Solar Power System and composting toilets. While these are modern updates, we think you will find Barr Camp to be a place far-removed from the fast-paced life you leave behind when you hike up the trail.

Today Barr Camp hosts day-hikers year round. Overnight guests still stay in cabins, shelters and tents, with the summer months busy with visitors from all around the world. An average of 18,000 trail users visit the camp annually and each year about 2,400 guests spend the night.

How Attorney General Bill Barr Built A $40 Million Fortune

W illiam Barr made his name serving as attorney general for two presidents, George H. W. Bush and Donald J. Trump. But he made his fortune out of office, collecting more than $50 million in compensation as an executive and director for some of America’s largest companies.

Today Barr, who did not comment for this story, has an estimated net worth of $40 million, after accounting for taxes, personal spending and modest investment returns. That figure is more precise than what’s on Barr’s public financial disclosure report, a document that deals only in broad ranges and shows assets worth somewhere between $24 million and $74 million.

The money started piling up around 1993, when Bush left the White House and Barr reentered the private sector. The next year, Barr became general counsel at telephone giant GTE Corporation. When GTE merged with Bell Atlantic to form Verizon in 2000, Barr stayed onboard as executive vice president and general counsel. From 2001 to 2007, he raked in an average of $1.7 million in annual salary and bonuses, according to documents filed with the Securities & Exchange Commission. Barr also received valuable stock options, some of which he traded while at the company, collecting an estimated $3 million after taxes from 2003 to 2007.

Barr’s $40 Million Fortune

The attorney general piled up tens of millions in the private sector.

The Verizon job came with other benefits. Barr got a $31,000 flexible spending allowance, $10,000 or so for financial planning, plus use of the company jet for personal purposes. The biggest benefit, however, came upon retirement. Barr stepped down from the company at the end of 2008, receiving a $17.1 million distribution from Verizon’s income deferral plan, according to an SEC filing. On top of that, company documents also detail an additional $10.4 million separation payment for Barr.

At the time, the global economy was in a tailspin. Corporate pay was under close scrutiny, and Barr’s exit package made for an easy target. An independent research firm named the Corporate Library graded Verizon with a “D,” noting “high governance risk” and “very high concern” in executive pay. In a filing, Verizon specifically pointed to Barr’s pay package in connection with the assessment.

Retiring did not mean Barr was done working. The year after he left Verizon, he joined the boards of two publicly traded companies, Dominion Resources and Time Warner. From 2009 to 2018, Dominion paid Barr $1.2 million in cash and granted him another $1.1 million in stock awards, according to SEC filings.

Time Warner paid him $970,000 in cash and $1 million in equity awards for serving on its board from 2009 to 2016, when the company agreed to combine with AT&T. That deal was lucrative for Barr—he disclosed $1.7 million of income related to it on his financial disclosure report. But the merger was troubling to Trump, whose Justice Department tried to block it. During his confirmation hearing, Barr promised to recuse himself from the case as attorney general.

Barr also served on the board of Och-Ziff Capital Management, joining in 2016, the same year a firm subsidiary pled guilty to conspiring to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Och-Ziff agreed to pay $412 million in penalties. It also paid Barr $190,000 in cash and $530,000 in stock awards from 2016 to 2018. The attorney general no longer serves on the boards of Och-Ziff, Dominion Resources or Time Warner.

In 2017, Barr signed on to work with the law firm Kirkland & Ellis, which has an unusual connection to the Trump administration. The firm pays an estimated $8.4 million in annual rent to lease part of a San Francisco skyscraper in which President Trump owns a 30% stake. While at Kirkland, Barr represented machine-maker Caterpillar. Two weeks after federal agents raided the manufacturer’s offices, the company’s CEO announced he was bringing on Barr “to take a fresh look at Caterpillar’s disputes with the government.” A spokesperson for Caterpillar said the company was “very pleased” with Barr’s work. Before taking office, the attorney general promised to recuse from any matters involving the company, “if necessary.”

Artifact Details

Joel Barr (1916-1998) was an American electrical engineer. While working for the US Army Signal Corps, Barr participated in espionage for the Soviet Union in a group including Alfred Sarant, Julius Rosenberg and others. In the 1950s, Barr and Sarant fled to Yugoslavia and then to the Soviet Union, where they lived under assumed identities. In the Soviet Union, the pair created a solid-state electronics and microelectronics research institute that eventually evolved into Zelnograd, a center of microelectronics and electronic computing work employing thousands of technical personnel. Ousted from leadership of Zelnograd in the mid 1960s, Barr pursued a number of electronics firms in the Soviet Bloc through the early 1990s. From 1992-1998, he resumed his identity and lived in both the US and Russia.

These audio cassettes contain interviews of Joel Barr with television producer Edward Wierzbowski during a September 1991 visit to Massachusetts, and audio-recordings of video interviews of Joel Barr conducted in various locations c. 1991-2 associated with an ABC News “Nightline” episode on Barr that aired in 1992.

Joel Barr, Defector Linked to Rosenbergs, Dies

Joel Barr, an electronics engineer linked to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who defected to the Soviet bloc in 1950 and became a leading force in the Kremlin's computer industry, died in a Moscow hospital on Aug. 1. He was 82 and had lived in St. Petersburg for many years.

He died of heart failure, said Morton Sobell, who spent 18 1/2 years in prison for conspiracy to commit espionage as part of the Rosenberg case and who had kept in touch with Mr. Barr.

Mr. Barr was suspected of passing secret information about technology advances to the Soviets. Fearing arrest by the F.B.I., he defected to Czechoslovakia in 1950 and later settled in the Soviet Union.

Mr. Barr and another American electronics engineer who defected, Alfred Sarant, were later instrumental in the development of ''the whole microelectronics and computer industry in the Soviet Union,'' according to Ronald Radosh, co-author with Joyce Milton of ''The Rosenberg File'' (Yale University Press, 1997).

Unlike the Rosenbergs, who were tried with Mr. Sobell and executed in 1953 for providing nuclear secrets to the Soviets, Mr. Barr was never arrested or indicted for any espionage role. But Mr. Radosh said that recently released American intelligence reports provide 'ɼonclusive proof that Barr was part of the spy ring that Julius Rosenberg put together'' and that the two of them gave the Soviets '✗ drawings related to high-resolution airborne radar systems developed at M.I.T. and built by Bell Labs.''

Mr. Radosh said the papers even provided Mr. Barr's and Mr. Sarant's wartime secret Soviet code names, Metr and Kh'YuS, although it was unclear which was which.

John Haynes, the co-author with Harvey Klehr of a forthcoming Soviet history to be published by Yale, said that the intelligence reports show that Mr. Barr and Mr. Sarant ''were among the K.G.B.'s most valuable technical spies.''

Mr. Barr was born in Brooklyn to parents who had emigrated from Russia. During the Depression, he studied engineering at the City College of New York. There he met Julius Rosenberg and Mr. Sobell, fellow students and fellow members of the Young Communist League.

During World War II, Mr. Barr worked in the laboratories of the Army Signal Corps and later for technology companies, including Western Electric and Sperry Gyroscope. Those jobs gave him an opportunity to copy secret documents about technological advances.

Edward Wierzbowski, a television producer and close friend of Mr. Barr, said those secrets were passed on to Julius Rosenberg, who gave them to his Soviet contact, Col. Aleksandr Feklisov, head of the industrial espionage arm of the K.G.B. in New York from 1941 to 1945.

But in 1948, Sperry dismissed Mr. Barr after discovering he was a Communist.

Mr. Barr, fearing arrest for his activities, left for an extended stay in Europe. When the Rosenbergs were arrested in 1950, Mr. Barr slipped away from his apartment in a suburb of Paris. He settled in Czechoslovakia, where he took the name Josef V. Berg of South Africa, married a Czech woman, Vera Bergova, and eventually became the father of four children.

Mr. Barr told The Los Angeles Times in 1992 that he kept his true identity secret from his wife for 20 years. The couple later divorced and Ms. Bergova returned to Prague.

Mr. Barr had been joined in Czechoslovakia by Mr. Sarant, his old roommate in Greenwich Village and fellow member of the Communist cell with the Rosenbergs. Mr. Sarant had also disappeared after the arrest of the Rosenbergs and questioning by the F.B.I., who suspected him of espionage and of photographing material with Mr. Barr.

Mr. Wierzbowski said the two engineers eventually persuaded Khrushchev, then Soviet leader, that the Soviet Union was way behind the United States in computer technology, and were invited to set up their own institute in 1956.

The two defectors worked together, earning a reputation as a highly effective engineering team. Mr. Wierzbowski said they established the large Zelenograd microelectronics center, 30 miles outside Moscow, and worked there on high-level projects until Khrushchev fell from power in 1964.

Mr. Barr and Mr. Sarant later started the Leningrad Design Bureau. Mr. Sarant, who took the name Filipp G. Staros, died in 1979, eulogized in the Soviet Government newspaper as an indefatigable contributor to Soviet microelectronics. Mr. Barr's last job was at the Svetlana Electronic Device Manufacturing Company, a huge electronics enterprise outside St. Petersburg.

In an interview with The Los Angeles Times, Mr. Barr said that he helped the Soviets build their first radar-guided anti-aircraft artillery. He said that his actions were never meant to ''put the United States in peril,'' but rather to help Communism thrive so that it might spread to the United States.

Mr. Barr remained a stanch Communist even when Stalin's crimes were revealed. But toward the end of his life, especially after Mikhail S. Gorbachev disclosed the shortcomings of previous Communist rulers, Mr. Barr said he gave up on Communism.

''I believe that now history will show that the Russian Revolution was a tremendous mistake,'' Mr. Barr told Elizabeth Shogren of The Los Angeles Times. ''It was a step backward. The real revolution for mankind that will go down for many, many years was the American Revolution.''

''Knowing what I do now, it was a tremendous mistake to have done what I did,'' he said.

Mr. Barr is survived by his Russian companion, known only as Elvira four children from his marriage to Ms. Bergova, Vivian Berg and Robert Berg, both of whom defected to the United States and now live in San Diego, and Alena Berg and Anton Berg, who live in Russia two daughters, Lera and Julia, from his relationship with Elvira, who live in Russia two brothers, Arthur of New York and Bernard of San Diego a sister, Iris Gilboard of Brighton, Mass., and four grandchildren.

Although he continued to live in Russia, Mr. Barr began to travel to the United States in the early 1990's to visit his children and to try to interest American investors in a microelectronics venture. He even applied for -- and received -- Social Security benefits, to the chagrin of American officials. He had American and Russian citizenship and even held a New York driver's license.

Joel Barr - Biography

Born Joyel Barr in New York City to immigrant parents of Ukrainian-Jewish origin, he attended City College of New York with Julius Rosenberg, and later worked with Rosenberg and Alfred Sarant at the United States Army Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey during World War II. Barr was recruited into espionage by Rosenberg. In turn, he recruited Sarant and the two shared an apartment and were allowed to function as a team by their KGB Case Officer, Alexandre Feklisov. Feklisov regarded the pair as the most productive members of the group.

Both Barr and Sarant were trained and employed as electrical engineers and worked on military radar. Barr was discovered by counterintelligence to be a Communist and was fired. He and Sarant then found employment with Western Electric and worked on a highly secret radar bombsight. Barr and Sarant gave the USSR over 9,000 pages of documents detailing over 100 weapons systems.

When the war ended the two founded Sarant Laboratories, and sought defense contracts, but the company soon failed, after which the two split up. Barr worked for a while in late 1946 with Sperry Gyroscope Company on secret military radar systems, but was fired in 1947 after the United States Air Force refused him a security clearance. Barr then moved to Europe, studying engineering in Sweden and music composition in Paris with Olivier Messiaen.

Barr disappeared from his Paris apartment the day after David Greenglass was arrested, and fled to Czechoslovakia without taking his belongings. The KGB gave him a new identity for the rest of his life Barr was known as Joseph Berg. In the summer of 1951, Barr met up with Sarant and the woman Sarant ran away with, Carol Dayton. Barr and Sarant, living under the name Philip Staros, settled in Prague, where they headed a successful effort to design the first automated anti-aircraft weapon created in the Soviet bloc, a weapon that was used with minor modifications through the 1980s.

In 1956 the two transferred to Leningrad and were put at the head of a military electronics research institute, and enjoyed the benefits of the Soviet Nomenklatura. In May 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev toured their institute and agreed to their plan to establish a new city dedicated entirely to microelectronics. The city, Zelenograd, was built on the outskirts of Moscow and Sarant was named deputy director, with authority over more than 20,000 engineers and scientists. Barr and Sarant lost their positions at Zelenograd when Khrushchev was deposed, but they continued to work on military projects, including the Uzel fire-control computer that was installed in Tango and Kilo class submarines.

In 1983, a Russian émigré, Mark Kuchment, working at Harvard University's Russian Research Center, who had read The Rosenberg File, linked Barr and Sarant to two prominent Soviet scientists, both native speakers of English.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992, Barr returned to the United States but denied his participation in espionage. He split the next six years between the U.S. and Russia, and died in 1998 in Moscow, Russia.

There are seven deciphered KGB transmissions about Joel Barr. Barr's code name in the Soviet intelligence and in deciphered Venona project transcripts was originally "Meter" (also "Metre" and "Metr") it was later changed to "Scout" (also "Skaut"). The November 14, 1944 Venona cable also documents the successful recruitment of Ruth Greenglass.

Joel Barr, aka Iosif Veniaminovich Berg

Born 1916 US citizen who emigrated to the Soviet Union and became one of the fathers of Soviet microelectronics.

After a long search following his graduation from the City College of New York, Barr's career finally took off thanks to America's World War II industrialization. But after the war he was fired from a high-paying job at Sperry Gyroscope, a defense contractor, when it was learned that he was a member of the Communist Party.

He later traveled to Europe, first to Paris, and then to Prague, where he got a glimpse of socialism in action.

In Czechoslovakia, he was joined by a friend and former colleague, Alfred Sarant. By now calling himself Joseph Berg from Johannesburg, South Africa, Barr married a Czech woman and started a family. He kept his real identity secret even from his wife, Vera, who learned the truth only after 20 years of marriage.

Then-Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev invited the two American engineers to Russia in 1956 and set them up in their institute in Leningrad. Russian colleagues credit Barr and Sarant with being the fathers of Soviet microelectronics, which enabled the regime to compete in the Cold War arms race and thereby strengthen its position at home. [From Shogren, 1991.]

Rights threatened 'by mob rule'

In their letter to Barr, dated Friday, the dozen Republican lawmakers claimed that any charges filed against the couple would have “a chilling effect” on an American populace whose rights to bear arms are guaranteed in the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

“At this crucial time in history, our nation needs the Department of Justice to exert strong leadership to ensure that none of our constitutional protections are eroded by mob rule,” the lawmakers wrote in part to Barr. “Charges against this couple will have a chilling effect on the entire nation, sending the message that American citizens no longer have the right to protect themselves at their own homes.”

“Charges against this couple will have a chilling effect on the entire nation, sending the message that American citizens no longer have the right to protect themselves at their own homes.”

— Letter to AG Barr from 12 GOP lawmakers

Signing the letter were U.S. Reps. Louis Gohmert of Texas Mo Brooks of Alabama Greg Steube of Florida Brian Babin of Texas Paul Gosar of Arizona Alex Mooney of West Virginia Andy Harris of Maryland Ted Budd of North Carolina Steve King of Iowa Steve Watkins of Kansas Jody Hice of Georgia and Scott Perry of Pennsylvania.

Saturday’s handover of the pistol occurred outside Watkins’ St. Louis office, in full view of reporters and bystanders, who watched and took photos. Some photos appeared on the website of FOX 2 of St. Louis.

Watkins said he was no longer representing the McCloskeys because his decision to hold the couple’s handgun in his office had made him a potential witness in any court case involving the couple, KSDK reported. The couple’s new lawyer is Joel Schwartz.

Mark and Patricia McCloskey are seen outside their St. Louis home in a clash with protesters, June 28, 2020. (Getty Images)

Authorities wanted the handgun in their possession to be sure it was inoperable as the McCloskeys and Watkins have claimed, FOX 2 reported. The reason for the rifle being confiscated on Friday remained unclear.

The protesters claimed they marched past the McCloskeys’ home on the way to a planned gathering outside the home of St. Louis Mayor Lyda Krewson.

Schwartz, the couple’s new lawyer, told KSDK on Friday that he does not believe the McCloskeys will face any charges in connection with the June incident, and said he is trying to arrange a meeting with the office of Gardner, the circuit attorney.

If they do face charges and are convicted, they would likely get probation or be required to perform community service, a law professor at St. Louis University told KSDK.

“There’s very little likelihood that the McCloskeys would see any jail time or prison time on these kind of charges,” Professor John Ammann told the station.

Bill Barr was a historically bad attorney general. His resignation shouldn't rehabilitate him.

Attorney General William Barr announced his resignation on Monday, effective next week, shortly after the Electoral College formally confirmed that Joe Biden would be the next president. Barr’s premature resignation — he’ll be gone about a month before President Donald Trump’s term is completed — combined with his unwillingness to formally participate in Trump’s efforts to overturn the results of the election are almost certainly an attempt by Barr to return to the mainstream respectability he enjoyed, however unearned, before joining this administration.

But don’t be fooled by his one modestly good act of not helping the president completely gut American democracy. Barr’s performance as attorney general should be judged by comparing him to his predecessors, rather than by Trump’s expectation that he should have his own Roy Cohn in the office. By the former metric, Barr is arguably the worst attorney general in American history.


Opinion DOJ inspector general report shows AG William Barr is a Trump spokesman, not a public servant

Barr's resignation letter, in fact, reminds us of his original sin: covering up the Trump campaign’s cooperation (if not collusion) with Russian efforts to interfere in the 2016 election, which Barr referred to as “the effort to cripple, if not oust your administration with frenzied and baseless accusations” in his letter. Barr, in fact, only got the job in significant measure by writing an unsolicited memo construing presidential power so broadly that, were his reading of the law truthful or accurate, it would have been impossible for Trump to have done anything at all that would have ever justified Robert Muller’s investigation.

But the problem is that Barr’s legal arguments have always been bogus they’ve only ever been an effort to toady up to the man in power.


Opinion Barr misled America about Mueller. He must resign as attorney general.

For example, in a low point of his tenure as attorney general — which is one long historical trough for the department — Barr gave a dishonestly exculpatory description of the Muller report that he described as a summary of its findings in 2019, causing Mueller himself to (privately) object. But filling the vacuum left when Mueller made the willfully naïve decision to refuse to draw firm conclusions, Barr successfully created a false narrative that there was no evidence of collusion between the Trump campaign and Russian interventions into the 2016 elections. (The August report issued by the Republican-controlled Senate Intelligence Committee demonstrating a substantial web of ties between the Trump campaign and Russian attempts to influence the campaign in his favor got far less attention.)

That was, of course, far from the only case of Barr acting like Trump’s personal attorney rather than the attorney general of the United States. Barr also dropped the case against Trump’s former national security adviser Michael Flynn, who had pled guilty to federal crimes. He fired the U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York, Geoffrey Berman, which everyone (including Berman) assumes was in retaliation for the division’s investigations into Trump and his associates he also tried to lie by claiming that Berman had resigned.


Opinion Trump fires Geoffrey Berman, exposing Barr's bully tactics and lies in the process

Barr also personally ordered the violent dispersal of lawful protestors from Lafayette Park in Washington so that Trump could do a photo-op in the midst of the George Floyd protests. And, while covering up the evidence of the Trump campaign’s cooperation with Russia, he opened multiple politically motivated investigations into people who investigated that case. Finally — in a particularly remarkable case of his working on Trump’s behalf — he attempted to shield Trump from the defamation lawsuit filed by E. Jean Carroll by arguing that Trump was acting in his capacity as president when he denied knowing Carroll before he assumed office and thus could not have sexually assaulted her as she alleges.

Barr’s efforts to boost Trump continued through the 2020 campaign. Most notably, he ordered the top federal prosecutor in Pittsburgh to investigate the conspiracy theories about Joe and Hunter Biden brought to the FBI by Rudy Giuliani, the former New York mayor turned Trump personal attorney. While in marked contrast to the disastrous decision by then-FBI Director James Comey (who was fired by Trump in 2017) to ignore departmental norms and inform Congress about the briefly reopened investigation into Hillary Clinton’s email server in 2016, Barr did not make these investigations public during the campaign. But giving a personal Trump employee special access to the FBI is a highly corrupt act, and “handled FBI investigations of a presidential candidate better than James Comey” is the lowest bar imaginable.


Opinion E. Jean Carroll vs. DOJ: Trump and Barr's defamation defense sets another bad precedent

It is also the lowest bar imaginable that Barr — again, the attorney general for the United States of America — publicly undermined Trump’s outrageous lies about widespread voter fraud being responsible for his election defeat. While it is good that Barr was — unlike most elite Republicans — unwilling to go along with Trump’s schemes to overturn and/or delegitimize the election after he clearly lost, “refusing to help install Donald Trump as a dictator, contrary to the will of the electorate” is the absolute bare minimum of what can be expected of a responsible public official, let alone the top law enforcement official, and is not an act worthy of fulsome praise.

And it’s also worth noting that Barr has ordered and will oversee an unprecedented number of executions on his way out the door — deaths the president has reportedly told confidants that he is “excited” about and hopes to have as many of as possible.


Opinion Trump and Barr used a loophole to deploy the National Guard to U.S. cities. It's time to close it.

Barring any highly unlikely last-minute judicial interventions in the next five weeks, 15 people will have been executed by the Trump administration by the time he leaves office, which will be five times the three executions that had been carried out by the federal government in the past 50 years. The two most recent executions are the first to be carried out by a lame-duck president since Grover Cleveland in 1889.

And what’s worse, both of the most recent executions are legally shaky. As observed in the dissenting opinions of the indefatigable Justice Sonia Sotomayor, Brandon Bernard was executed despite the fact that the prosecution made patently false claims about his involvement in a gang, and those claims were critical to his capital sentence for a murder that he did not personally commit. In the other case, Alfred Bourgeois was executed although he had a strong claim for being mentally handicapped, which would make his execution illegal both under federal statute and controlling Supreme Court precedent. But Barr was determined to make sure all of these prisoners died on his watch.


Opinion We want to hear what you THINK. Please submit a letter to the editor.

It is perhaps appropriate that Barr’s tenure ends in bloodshed and shoddy legal arguments. Standards for conduct in the contemporary Republican Party have become so debased that Barr might well be able to leverage his refusal to enable Trump’s anti-democratic impulses to integrate back into the infamously ethically flexible world of legal elites.

But the rest of America — and history — should judge him more harshly. Donald Trump is the worst president in American history, and Bill Barr was all too willing to be his fixer and enabler, rather than obeying his own oath of office and acting in the public interest.

Scott Lemieux is a teaching professor in the political science department at the University of Washington. He is a co-author of "Judicial Review and Democratic Theory" and contributes regularly to The Week, Reuters and The New Republic.


This months offer as a thank you for a gift of any amount, is our portable Inspiration cube. This audio device doubles as a Bluetooth speaker with high-quality sound and optional headphone port. With OVER 400 of Joel’s most requested inspiring & uplifting messages and 31 affirmations plus more, all with just a touch of a button.

Pass on Spiritual Blessings

In the Bible, we often see people bringing each other close to change their lives. In Matthew 19, parents brought their children to Jesus to have Him place His hands on them, pray for them, and transfer blessings to them. "Let the children come to Me," He said. Parents, such as the patriarch Isaac in Genesis 27, bless their children often through the act of physically placing their hands on them. Isaac said to Jacob, "Come close to me," and he hugged and kissed his son before he transferred the blessing. He not only spoke the blessing, but he physically transferred it by touch.

From the time our children were very little, Joel and I would hold their little hands, put our hands on their head, and pray for them. They experienced this transfer of blessings so many times as children, and even now as adults we still put our hands on them and pray for them when we're with them. We need our children to understand that as parents we have spiritual authority from God to impart and release blessings in their life.

Do you know what a touch means? It's a personal acceptance. If I reach out and touch you, it's saying there's no barrier between you and me. Never underestimate the power when you lovingly touch and embrace your children. You may say, "Well, my children already know I love them." That's good, but what would happen if you gave them a hug and said, "I bless you"? There's a transferable spiritual blessing in that hug.

The parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15 provides a vivid picture of this principle. That son had taken his inheritance, wasted it all on a party lifestyle, and ended up feeding pigs and eating hog feed. He decided it was better to return home and offer himself as a hired servant to his father. He didn't know that his father looked out for him to come home every day. When the father saw his son coming from afar, he ran to his son and threw his arms around him and kissed him. That embrace and kiss and blessing from his father disarmed the shame and insecurities that young man had. His father was saying, "I forgive you, and there is no distance between us. The barrier has been broken. You are my son, and I bless you!" I bet that young man was never the same. I bet he never felt the same way about himself. He had his father's blessing. He was loved well.

How long has it been since you've hugged and blessed your kids? It will touch them for eternity.

Watch the video: Roger Federer Serve In Super Slow Motion - 2013 Cincinnati Open (August 2022).