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Although the Spanish conjunction y usually is the equivalent of the English "and," it also can be used in a few ways that aren't exactly the way "and" is in English.
Keep in mind that y changes to e when it comes before certain words. Basically, it become e when it precedes a word that begins with the i sound, such as iglesia.
Using Y To Link Similar Grammatical Units
Most of the time, y is used to connect two sentences or words or phrases that are the same part of speech or fulfill the same grammatical function. Thus, for example, it can join two or more nouns as well as two or more direct objects. Grammatically, y in this usage is known as a copulative.
- Un perro y una vaca son los protagonistas del libro. (A dog and a cow are the book's main characters. Y joins two nouns.)
- Tú y yo sabemos lo que es vivir tan lejos. (You and I know what it is to live so far away. Y joins two subject pronouns, although it could can join a noun and a pronoun if they are both subjects.)
- Cantábamos y tocábamos mejor que nadie. (We sang and we played instruments better than anybody. Y joins two verbs.)
- Es el mejor regalo para él y ella. (It's the best gift for him and her.)
- ¿Por qué ese idiota es rico y yo no? (Why is that idiot rich and I'm not?)
- El presidente y el vicepresidente tienen un mandato de cuatro años. (The president and vice president have a four-year term.)
- Vi la película y la encontré buena. (I saw the film and I found it to be good.)
- Me duele mucho y estoy preocupada. (I'm in much pain and I am worried.)
If y is used to join a series of three or more entities, a comma is not used before the final entity unless needed for clarity. This is in contrast with English, where the comma is optional or a matter of; when it is used in English, it is known as the Oxford comma.
- Tú, ella y yo vamos a la playa. (You, she, and I are going to the beach.)
- "El león, la bruja y el armario" fue escrito por C.S. Lewis. ("The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe" was written by C.S. Lewis.)
- Venimos, comimos, y nos fuimos. (We came, we ate, and we left.)
- Esa idea es estereotípica, incorrecta e inauténtica. (That idea is stereotypical, incorrect and inauthentic.)
Y in Questions To Mean 'What About?'
In beginning questions, y can carry the idea of "what about?" or "how about?" Although the "and" of English can be used the same way, the Spanish usage is much more common.
- No puedo nadar. ¿Y tú? (I can't swim. How about you?)
- No sabía que David estaba enfermo. ¿Y Casandra? (I didn't know David was sick. What about Casandra?)
- ¿Y qué? (So what?)
- ¿Y si mi hijo no se toma la medicación? (What if my son doesn't take the medication?)
Y as an Indication of Contrast
In some contexts, y can be used to indicate a contrast in a way that the English "and" standing alone doesn't. In these cases it usually can be translated by "and yet" or "and still."
- Estudiaba mucho y no sabía nada. She studied a lot and still didn't know anything.
- Juan es asesino y lo amamos. Juan is a murderer, yet we still love him.
- Antonio y Casandra son hermanos, pero él es alto y ella es baja. (Antonio and Casandra are brother and sister, but he is tall even while she is short.)
Using Y To Suggest a Large Amount
As with the English "and," when y connects a word or phrase that is repeated, it suggests a large, indefinite amount:
- Corrieron y corrieron hasta llegar a casa. (The ran and they ran until they arrived at home.)
- Es una ciudad muerta desde hace años y años. (It has been a dead city since years and years ago.)
- Mi madre estudiaba y estudiaba a todas horas. (My mother studied and studied all the time.)
- Y is most often the direct equivalent of "and," being used to join two or more works, phrases, or sentences that have the same grammatical status.
- Y can also be used at the beginning of a question to mean "what about."
- In some contexts, y emphasizes the contrast between two or more grammatical entities.